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"Sound and Sense" Poetry Terms – Duple meter – Irony

Duple meter
a meter in which a majority of the feet contain two syllables. Iambic and trochaic are both this

End rhyme
rhymes that occur at the ends of the lines

End-stopped line
A line that ends with a natural speech pause, usually marked by punctuation

English (Shakespearean) sonnet
A sonnet rhyming ababcdcdefefgg. Its content or structure ideally parallels the rhyme scheme, falling into three coordinate quatrains and a concluding couplet; but it is often structured, like the Italian sonnet, into octave and sestet, the principal break in thought coming at the end of the eighth line

Euphony
a smooth, pleasant-sounding choice and arrangement of sounds

Expected rhythm
the rhythmic expectation set up by the basic meter of a poem

Extended figure
a figure of speech (usually metaphor, simile, personification, or apostrophe) sustained or developed through a considerable number of lines or through a whole poem

Extrametrical syllables
In metrical verse, extra unaccented syllables added at the beginnings or endings of lines; these may be either a feature of the metrical form of a poem or occur as exceptions to the form. In iambic lines, they occur at the end of the line; in trochaic, at the beginning

Feminine rhyme
a rhyme in which the repeated accented vowel is in either the second- or the third-last syllable of the words involved (for example, ceiling-appealing, hurrying-scurrying)

Figurative language
language employing figures of speech; language that cannot be taken literally or only literally

Figure of speech
broadly, any way of saying something other than the ordinary way; more narrowly (and for the purposes of this book), a way of saying one thing and meaning another

Fixed form
any form of poem in which the length and pattern are prescribed by previous usage or traditions, such as sonnet, villanelle, and so on

Folk ballad
a narrative poem designed to be sung, composed by an anonymous author, and transmitted orally for years or generations before being written down. It has usually undergone modification through the process of oral transmission

Foot
the basic unit used in the scansion or measurement of metrical verse. Usually contains one accented syllable and one or two unaccented syllables

Form
the external pattern or shape of a poem, describable without reference to its content, as continuous, stanzaic, fixed, free, and syllabic

Free verse
nonmetrical poetry in which the basic rhythmic unit is the line, and in which pauses, line breaks, and formal patterns develop organically from the requirements of an individual poem rather than from established poetic forms

Grammatical pause
also known as caesura; a pause introduced into the reading of a line by a mark of punctuation

Heard rhythm
the actual rhythm of a metrical poem as we hear it when it is read naturally. Mostly conforms to but sometimes departs from or modifies the expected rhythm

Hexameter
a metrical line containing six feet

Hyperbole
a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used in the service of truth

Iamb
a metrical foot consisting of one unaccented syllable followed by one accented syllable (for example, rehearse)

Iambic meter
a meter in which the majority of feet are iambs; the most common English meter

Imagery
the representation through language of sense experience

Internal rhyme
a rhyme in which one or both of the rhyme words occur(s) within the line

Irony
a situation, or a use of language, involving some kind of incongruity or discrepancy. Consists of verbal irony, dramatic irony, and situational irony (irony of situation)

Verbal irony
a figure of speech in which what is meant is the opposite of what is said

Dramatic irony
a device by which the author implies a different meaning from that intended by the speaker (or by a speaker) in a literary work

Situational irony
a situation in which there is an incongruity between actual circumstances and those that would seem appropriate, or between what is anticipated and what actually comes to pass

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