Human Growth and Development DEP 2000 Jochy Martinez Activity 3: Chapter 18 Essay Questions Explain Erik Erickson’s views on older adulthood Erikson felt that much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage and the last stage is recovering from it. Perhaps that is because as older adults we can often look back on our lives with happiness and are content, feeling fulfilled with a deep sense that life has meaning and we’ve made a contribution to life, a feeling Erikson calls integrity.
Our strength comes from a wisdom that the world is very large and we now have a detached concern for the whole of life, accepting death as the completion of life. On the other hand, some adults may reach this stage and despair at their experiences and perceived failures. They may fear death as they struggle to find a purpose to their lives, wondering “Was the trip worth it? ” Alternatively, they may feel they have all the answers (not unlike going back to adolescence) and end with a strong dogmatism that only their view has been correct. Erickson maintained that some despair is inevitable.
People need to mourn, not only their misfortunes and lost chances but for the vulnerability and transience of the human condition. Describe some of the alternative housing arrangements available to elderly In developing countries, older adults typically live with adult children and grandchildren in multigenerational households, though this custom is declining. In developed countries, older people live alone or with a partner or spouse, or they have a wide range of options to choose from, including: Retirement hotel, apartment or hotel building remodeled to meet the needs of independent older adults.
Typical hotels services available (maid service, message center, restaurants) are provided. Retirement Community, large, self-contained development with owned or rental units. Support services and recreational facilities are available. Foster-care home, owners of a single family residence take in an unrelated older adult and provide meals, housekeeping, and personal care. Continuing care retirement community, long-term housing planned to provide full range of accommodations and services for affluent elderly people as their needs change.
A resident may start out in an independent apartment; then move into congregate housing with such services as cleaning, laundry, and meals; then into an assisted-living facility; and finally into a nursing home. Accessory apartment or ECHO (elder cottage housing opportunity) an independent unit created so that an older person can live in a remodeled single-family home or in a portable unit on the grounds of a single-family home. Others facilities: Assisted-living facility and Shared housing, offer similar services as the previous mention above. Rights granted by federal law to nursing home residents
Approximately 20% of all persons who die every year are residents of nursing homes. Since a nursing home is the last place of residence for such a large percentage of our population, it is very important that all of the rights of nursing home residents be upheld. Federal law requires that a nursing home must care for its residents in such a manner and in such an environment as will promote maintenance or enhancement of the quality of life of each resident. Federal law requires that nursing homes provide “services and activities to attain or maintain the highest practicable physical, mental, and psychosocial well-being of each resident. Note that the federal law refers to a person who lives in a nursing home as a “resident,” not a patient. A resident has the right to choose activities, schedules, and health care consistent with his or her interests, assessments, and plans of care. Under federal law, each resident has the right “to reside and receive services with reasonable accommodation of individual needs and preferences, except where the health or safety of the individual or other residents would be endangered. “
Federal law requires that a nursing home must ensure that a resident’s “abilities in activities of daily living do not diminish unless circumstances of the individual’s clinical condition demonstrate that diminution was unavoidable. ” Thus, maintaining a condition, or moderating the rate of decline, should always be a goal, even if the nursing home resident is not making progress. Federal law requires that a nursing home establish and maintain identical policies and practices regarding transfer, discharge, and the provision of services for all individuals “regardless of source of payment. Thus, a nursing home resident should never be denied the continuation of physical therapy based on the excuse that Medicare will no longer cover it. Nursing home residents often are susceptible to transfer trauma in being moved from place to place.
Federal law gives every nursing home resident the right to veto any intra-facility transfer. Medicare certification of a room does not prevent that room from being used for the care of a resident who pays privately or has payment through the Mass Health (i. e. Medicaid) program. Immediate family or other relatives are not subject to visiting hour limitations or other restrictions unless imposed by the nursing home resident. Federal law requires that a resident’s “immediate family or other relatives” have the right to visit at any time if the resident consents to the visit. Under federal law, non-family visitors must also be granted “immediate access” to the resident. Three Patterns use after retirement Retirement is not a single event but an ongoing process.
Personal resources (health, SES and personality), economic resources, and social relational resources, such as support from a partner and friends, can affect how well retirees will adapt to their new lifestyle. One common pattern is the family-focused lifestyle, consists largely of accessible, low-cost activities that resolve around family, home, and companions: conversation, watching TV, visiting with family and friends, informal entertaining, time on facebook (like my parents) or just doing “what comes along”.
The second pattern, balanced investment, is typical of more educated people, who allocate their time more equally among family, work and leisure. The third pattern, serious leisure, is dominated by activity that demands skill, attention and commitment. Retirees who engage in this pattern tend to be extraordinarily satisfied with their lives. These patterns may change with age and type of activities.