Chapter 4: American Indians and the Criminal Justice System
This chapter analyzes the contemporary issues of the United States’ policy in criminal justice system.
It entails the cross-cultural interactions that provide the historical explanations that have brought the American criminal justice system into the 21st century. This historical perspectives and cultural matters are summarized in relation to the modern criminal justice system in America. The state policy towards the American Indians is viewed in the historical context and through the lens of the American criminal laws including, but not limited to, American Indian citizenship, freedom of religion and the status of American Indian people within the criminal justice system.
This chapter gives an overview of the worldview and relationship to the criminal justice system between the American Indians and whites in detaining, sentencing and incarceration rates. The Americans crime victimization rate is too high comparing to those of non- Indians. The national survey on this issue reveals that the violent crimes committed against the American Indians is approximated to be 57%.
The incineration rate in America is approximated 19% and this is higher than the countrywide rate. Disparities are common between the American Indians and the non-Indians. This varies by class, race, ethnicity and other several demographic issues.
Tarver (2002) highlights that the law enforcement arrests the American Indians criminals more than the whites and this indicates that racism exists in the processes of criminal justice system. The American Indians are mostly arrested for certain issues such as violent and property crimes. Thus, the criminal justice system treats them differently from the whites.
Moreover, the American Indians are detained in jail and sentenced for a longer period than the non-Indians are sentenced. The author examines historically the disadvantaged groups in the criminal justice system of the United States. These groups are processed from the pre-arrest through law enforcements, courts, parole and corrections.
Chapter 5: Asian and Pacific Islander Americans and the Criminal Justice System
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are one the fastest growing minority groups. The Washington state commission on Asian pacific American affairs has worked over the past 36 years in improving the welfare of Asian pacific Americans. This has been successfully accomplished through ensuring that they have access to the government services and proper criminal justice systems. Due to increased discrimination and barriers in accessing government resources, a certain group of Asian Pacific American society tabled their issues to the governor of the United States in matters such as civil rights and social services. The Asian Pacific Americans is the nation with diverse cultural, religion and ethnicity problems.
Tarver (2002) in this chapter analyzes the impact of the criminal justice system such as hate crimes that are racially motivated. There are outright acts of prejudice against the Asian pacific Americans that the American state justifies as the negative treatment. The laws are strictly imposed on criminals of hate crimes. Consequently, the Southeast Asian Americans gangs prompted the law enforcement agencies to take control and responsibilities in the criminal justice system. The author indicates that the activities of Asian pacific Americans gangs differ from those of Southeast Asian gangs. All this prompted the government to increase law enforcement efforts and reformed the system of criminal justice.
The author explains about the locus of control and responsibility whereby the Asian pacific Americans believed that they could control the events that affected them. However, the internal locus of control believed that the events resulted primarily from their own behaviors and actions. Those individuals with high external locus of control believed that crimes and chances primarily determine their events. Thus, the crime control programs were put in place in order to reduce criminal rates. Moreover, the Washington state commission on Asian pacific American affairs imposed strict laws to reduce hate and violence crimes.
Chapter 6: Americans from Middle East Countries
This chapter reveals on different cultures across the Middle East countries including the Arab Americans and the Jewish Americans. These regions face diverse conflicts and terrorism cases are common. There is need for governance strengthening because of insecurity, poverty and economic disparities. There are increased advancements in criminal justice system in the Middle East countries. Many people who have tried to struggle for democracy and maintain justice have faced many challenges because the criminal justice systems in the Middle East countries are poor. Thus, there is need for creating good cultural relationships and reforming the criminal justice systems in the Middle East countries.
The author reveals the impact of hate crimes on selected groups in the criminal justice systems in America. The department of the United States criminal justice points out that threats, assaults and acts of sabotage against Arab Americans and the South Asians people has tremendously increased. There are ethnicity crimes that have diversified in America because of the reactions of America towards threat of terrorism from foreign organizations. There are increased penal codes on hate crimes in all states of America. It is seen as a violent act aimed to a certain group of people or a particular race, ethnicity or religion like that of Jewish religion. The Supreme Court upheld the law that provides a severe sentence on cases of hate speech especially on race, religion or sexual orientation.
In addition, hate crimes is seen as hurting not only the victims but also the whole society. The criminal laws are one of the ways of attacking this problem in order to maintain justice. Heavy punishment is instilled on hate speech though some people term this as violating the rights from freedom of speech. The author suggests that in order to build good relationships with the criminal justice system, law should be enforced. Despite the increase in hate victimization, the Arab Americans expressed a bigger anxiety of being maltreated by federal policies and practices. Building a good relationship is seen as an essential factor that enables the investigators to be able to maintain criminal justice. The author reveals that in order to achieve this, there should be a good relationship across the culture.
Chapter 7: Criminal Justice System: Effective Cultural Contacts
This chapter gives an over view of preparing for an effective cultural contacts in the America’s criminal justice system. This system in America exists as an organization that upholds social control, deter and control criminal activity. In addition, it penalizes and rehabilitates those individuals who violates the laws and protects the rights of those accused of crimes. However, it is not easy to achieve effective criminal justice because of wide spread of ethnicity and racism. This chapter indicates that the greatest asset that can increase the effective criminal justice is through government engaging in funding evaluation methods and crime control methods.
Tarver (2002) reveals that crime justice system has traditionally been the greatest subject matter of cultural context. The law seems to have cultural incidence that makes it difficult for an individual to distinguish between fictions and facts. Crime justice system has been made a salient factor by many politicians especially in the American political culture. The author comments that the cross-examination in the criminal trials, the internal laws systems and many others has a rich and powerful vernacular system. Therefore, anyone who is interested in understanding these subjects needs to understand effectively the complex cultural lives. Moreover, one needs to understand the cross-cultural lives for citizens and those of the legal institutions.
Preparing for effective cultural contact in the criminal justice system is crucial. Tarver reveals that the inter-cultural contact is crucial because through good cultural contacts, relevant ideas are provided and received. Besides, cultural contacts are effective in criminal justice system. This is because it enables the investigators to correct relevant information necessary for obtaining justice in court. Throughout history, culture has been isolated but incorporation of cross-cultural contacts in the contemporary world has greatly contributed to effective criminal justice system.
Tarver, M (2002). Multicultural issues in the criminal justice system. Boston, MA: Allyn and