Cognitive development has six approaches: behaviorist, psychometric, Piagetian, information-processing, cognitive neuroscience, social contextual. Following are some of the steps that each approach take. The mechanics of the learning process is known as thebehaviorist approach. It also shows that an infant memory development is not much different from older children and adults, but keeping time is shorter. The capabilities of the quantitive difference is shown through the psychometric approach.
The intelligence of infants and toddlers can’t be measured but however it can be tested by using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development which gives separate scores called development quotients.
Using developmental quotients, a parent can find out early if there are any deficiencies with the infant. The parent can start early intervention, which can help stop any existing risk factors.
The Piagetian approach shows how the baby get use to its environment. This process is considered as the sensorimotor stage. Sensorimotor stage have a few sub stages to acknowledge ( reflexes, primary and secondary circular reactions, coordinating secondary schemes tertiary circular reactions, and mental combinations).
Also you will find that there are some key developments in the sensorimotor stage (limitations, object performance, symbolic development, categorization, casualty, and number).
Preception, learning, memory and problem solving are steps of the information- processing approach. Habituation is where infants through repetition process of information begins. This also show similarity with the stimulus that reduces, slows or stops a response. Dishabituation is also a step when the infant gainsits interest in things from the presentation it receives of a new stimulus.
Visual preference is when an infant set its eyesight on something and prefers watching that item more than others. Cross-modal transfer is obtained information by one sense to guide another. Usually around seven months a baby know whether an object can move or not such as a rock. Violation of expectation studies show that the baby acknowledge the new encouragement as amazing.
The implementation of the central nervous system is through the process of cognitive neuroscience approach. The brain research consist of a few steps such as the following. Recollection of habits and skills is known as implicit memory or procedural memory. Explicit memory is deliberate and responsive. Working memory is defined as short term storage of information being actively processed.
The adjustment to parent and others is through their social-contextual approach. When we take part in being active with the child it guides their understanding and structure to be closer to the individual. This also bring on language development that begins with crying to cooing and babbling, then to accidental imitation, and deliberate imitation.
These languages or speech starts in the early vocalization process. Usually by 10 and 14 months the infant is expressing linguistic speech or verbal expression. They then begin to utilize one word phrase known as holophrase which gives a complete thought. From here they develop telegraphic phrases using a few words such as bottle fall. By the time they are 20 to 30 months they are completing sentences in their language according to syntax rule. A lot of their language development is through the process of participation from the parent/caregiver. Such as Reading with them and playing. This help them develop their language linguistic.