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Language and Literature | Grade 8 | Final Exam | Poetry and Literary Terms

alliteration
repetition of initial consonant sounds; used to draw attention to certain words or ideas, to imitate sounds, and to create musical effects (EX: sacred stone, silver shoon) Also doesn’t have to start with the same letter can end in a “st” sound like “first-water star”)

allusion
reference to a well-know person, place, event, literary work, or work of art (Ex. On the “Wreck of the Hesperus” the daughter prayed to be saved and thought of Christ, calming the waters in the Sea of Galilee – Reference to Jesus)

ballad
song-like poem that tells a story;often one dealing with adventure and romance; most are written in four-to six-line stanzas and have regular rhythms and rhyme schemes; often features a refrain

blank verse
poetry written in un-rhymed iambic pentameter lines (EX: William Shakespeare)

concrete poem
poem with a shape that suggests its subject; poet arranges the letters, punctuation, and lines to create an image (Ex: 400 meter… shows the swimmer swimming laps then flipping around to start again.)

extended metaphor
a subject is spoken of (written) as if it were something else; several comparisons made (see metaphor; Ex. In the “Centaur” the girl pretends she’s the horse and rider)

figurative language
writing or speech that is not meant to be taken literally; know as “figures of speech”; used to stated ideas in vivid and imaginative ways (EX: metaphor, simile, and personification)

free verse
poetry not written in a regular rhythmical pattern; may contain lines of any length or with any number of stresses (beats)

haiku
three-line Japanese verse form; 5-7-5 syllables; three lines; writer uses images to create a single, vivid picture-generally about nature

image
word or phrase that appeals to one or more of the 5 senses; used to describe how the subject looks, feels, sounds, tastes, and smells

limerick
short, humorous poem of 5 lines; 1st, 2nd, and 5th rhyme–3rd and 4th rhyme; rhyming lines have the same rhythm

lyric poem
short, highly musical poem; expresses the observations and feelings of a single speaker; short, musical poem that expresses feelings

metaphor
figure of speech in which something is said/described to be something else; points out a similarity between 2 unlike things; (Ex: Stars are great drops of golden dew.)

meter
rhythmical patter of a poem; determined by the number of stresses (beats) in each line

narrative poem
story told in a verse (as a poem); often has all the elements of a short story (characters,settings, plot, etc)

onomatopoeia
use of words that imitate sounds (EX: crash, buzz, screech, neigh)

personification
type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics (Ex. The Sun walks to the sky’s middle, shining gloriously – The sun can’t walk.)

poetry
one of the major types of literature; can be divided into lines and stanzas and often employ regular rhythmical patters (meters); can be written out like prose or free verse; can use concise, musical, and emotionally charged language; can use imagery, figurative language, and special sound devices

refrain
a regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song

repetition
the use, more than once, of any element of language in prose and poetry (EX: sound, word, phrase, clause)

rhyme
the repetition of sounds at the ends of words; many traditional-style poems contain end rhymes (rhymes at the end of a line)

rhyme scheme
a regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem; indicated (in a poem) by lowercase letters; each rhyme=different letter (EX: sonnet-ababcdcdefefgg)

rhythm
the pattern of beats, or stresses, in spoken or written language

sensory language
writing or speech that appeals to one or more of the 5 senses

simile
a figure of speech that uses “like” or “as” to make a direct comparison between two unlike ideas ( Ex. Her eyes sparkled like the moon’s reflection in the clear ocean.)

speaker
the imaginary voice assumed by the writer of a poem; the character who tells the poem, often not identified by name

stanza
a formal division of lines in a poem; separated by spaces; function like a paragraph in a prose; states and develops a main idea

Antagonist
The force opposing the main character

Dynamic
Character that changes during the course of the story

Static
Does not change in the course of the story

Protagonist
The main character

Flat
Character that only has one trait

Round
A character that has many sides

Stock
A character is familiar with stereotypes

Consistent
Character os one whose continuing his/her actions

Climax
The point of greatest intensity, interest, or suspense in a story

Conflict
The struggle between two opposing forces or characters

Dialogue
Spoken words between two or more characters in a story

Metaphor
The comparison of two unlike things without using like or as

Simile
The comparison of two unlike things using like or as

Myth
Usually a story a god or gods, that is intended to to explain something unknowable

Narrator
The person who tells the story. It may be a major or a minor character in the story or someone who is not in the story at all

Personification
Giving non-human things human characteristics

Plot
The event as they happen in the story

Setting
The time and place in which the events of a story occur

Alliteration
Repetition go sounds in nearby words

Autobiography
A person’s account of his or her own life

Biography
A detailed account of a person’s life written by someone else

Blank Verse
Unrhymed iambic pentameter

Concrete Poem
A poem written in a special shape shape that usually the poem’s subject

Couplet
Two consecutive lines of poetry

Epic
A long narrative poem telling about good deeds or a great hero

Flashback
A scene in a piece when you remember the past

Foreshadowing
An indication of something that may happen later in the story

Free Verse
Poetry which has no regular patterns of rhyme , meter or line length

Irony
Different contrast

Onomatopoeia
A word whose sound suggest its meaning

Phrase
A few

Point of view
The vantage point from which the story is seen or told

Prose
Writing in normal sentences or paragraphs

Rhyme
The placing or words with similar ending sounds

Soliloquy
Im drama, a speech delivered by character

Sonnet
A lyrical poem consisting of 14 lines

Stanza
A Grouping of several lines

Suspense
The quality of a story that makes the reader

Theme
The main idea of a story, often expressed as an insight about life

Verse
Another name for poetry

Cliche
An overused, tired expression

Dramatic Irony
Is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters.

Situational Irony
Irony when it isn’t expected

Verbal Irony
When a person says or writes one thing and means another

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