Informative Research Essayhi Thesis Statement
18 March 2019
Serial Killers: Connecting the Internal Human Deterrence System
Fear has been swept across the world since the eighteenth century by one skin crawling phenomenon: serial killers. When the serial killing began and precisely how many people they killed isnt exactly a black and white subject, due to poor record keeping. The National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime is the U.S. law enforcements centralized information center and it was established in 1984; this is a prime example of the poor record keeping. In table 1 of Heinous Spaces, Perfidious Places, an estimated number of serial killers, from the eighteenth century to 1990, in each country is given. A majority of the countries had less than 5 many of those only having 1 the UK skipped ahead with 39, but the USA blew all other countries out of the water with 105 serial killers. H. H. Holmes, or Herman Webster Mudgett, is the first serial killer identified in America.
H. H. Holmes was known for suffocating over 200 people, which were mostly female, in Chicago and Philadelphia in the 1880s and 1890s. In the academic journal Heinous Spaces, Perfidious Places, Jeffers argues, Serial killers are not driven by greed, hatred, envy, revenge, or spur-of-the-moment violence but by deeper, long-harbored compulsions. (Warf 325, 326.) The Criminal Triad Theory is a theory of criminal behavior to help understand what makes people participate in criminal behavior. Described in this theory are the three developmental processes: attachment, moral development, and identity formation.
The theory presents a picture of the internal human deterrence system and each developmental process corresponds to components in the internal human deterrence system. The internal human deterrence system puts the three processes together to help a person veer away from deviant behavior. A criminal personality type, a tendency to participate in criminal behavior when the opportunity is available, is a person missing two or all three of the internal deterrence components (Harmening). Serial killers are developed due to missing 2 out of the 3 components in the internal human deterrence system: moral deterrence, self deterrence, and social deterrence.
In 1976-77, four attacks by a .44 caliber gun had been committed, but with only 2 deaths after the 4 attacks did people finally start suspecting a pattern; even worse, an active killer. Once the NYPD made the connection that the shootings were done with the same .44 caliber revolver, the thought of a serial killer was in everyones mind (Binger). By this time, it was on the news and a name was given to the shooter: .44 Caliber Killer. A pattern was seen in the victims of the .44 Caliber Killer, each having long, dark hair and mostly female. The whole town was fearing for their safety, so people were dying and cutting their hair, wearing wigs, and businesses closed early for the safety of employees. Unfortunately, despite peoples best efforts to hide themselves, the .44 Caliber Killer continued his shooting spree. Within a 9 month span, 11 people had been shot, with only 5 dead (Wilson). After these shootings, a long note was found near the bodies of the most recent attack reading: I am deeply hurt by your calling me a woman hater. I am not. But I am a monster. I am the Son of Sam I am a little brat. When father Sam gets drunk he gets mean. He beats his family. Sometimes he ties me up to the back of the house. Sam loves to drink blood. Go out an kill commands father Sam The rest of the note explains how he must honor his father and they will have to kill him to get him to stop. Not long after this note was discovered, a second note was sent to the Daily News columnist, explaining that people cant forget about him or the girls he kills, and that father Sam is thirsty and wont let him stop killing. After shooting another couple in a parked car, Son of Sam was identified. Son of Sam, also known as David Berkowitz, was an ego directed killer (Harmening 155-161).
David Berkowitz was put up for adoption after birth and overall had loving adoptive parents. Berkowitz was tormented as a child due to being overweight and would have episodes of rage at home and school, where his father had to pin him down and teacher had to remove him from class in a headlock. He was sent to a psychologist to avoid getting expelled from school but it had no positive impact on him. Eventually he started showing symptoms of depression and thoughts of suicide. Not long after, his mother died of breast cancer and he started participating in vandalism, arson, torturing animals (Harmening 163).
Charles Mansons crime spree began in his Hollywood apartment when he shot a colored drug dealer named Bernard Crowe. Crowe was wounded but Manson had believed he killed him. Manson had never committed any of the crimes himself, but instead had his followers do the deeds for him. In July 1969, Manson instructed three of his followers to take money from Gary Hinman, who had just acquired a large amount of money. Hinman was not going to give up the money, so Manson had one of the three followers kill him by stabbing him to death. Manson later told 4 of his followers to go to the house of Terry Melcher and kill everyone inside. On their way to the house, they met an 18 year old, leaving an adjacent house and shot and killed him. Everyone inside was stabbed to death, including a pregnant woman and the event was very chaotic. Manson accompanied his followers at the next house and set up all the ways he wanted it to be done and gave instructions, then left. Both victims were stabbed to death and left with words carved into their bodies and knives left in the chest and necks (Soares). The LAPD and LA county Sherriffs Department had been investigating all of these murders and were eventually able to connect all of them due to each scene having words written on the walls in bloods and words carved into the victims bodies. The physical evidence was outstanding and Mansons followers were also sloppy in keeping quiet, because they were quick to brag about the gruesome murders once they were finished. On of the followers girlfriend was communicating with the police and in December 1969, arrest warrants were put out for Manson and his 4 followers. The case lasted from July 24, 1970 to January 25, 1971 (Keppel). All 5 were sentenced to death, but eventually changed to life in prison due to the death penalty being unconstitutional. Charles Manson is labeled as an ego directed killer (Harmening 174-179).
Charles Manson was in his fourth boys school by the age of 13. Manson forced another male at the school to perform sexual favors for him. He was transferred to a Federal Reformatory and spent the rest of his adolescence incarcerated until 19 years old when he was granted parole. He ended up marrying his girlfriends and getting her pregnant. He continued to steal cars and other things for financial gain. (Harmening 180-182)
Many serial killers just used force or violence to overcome their victims, but not Theodore Ted Bundy. Ted Bundy used charisma and appeal to mislead his victims. Bundys first confirmed attack was in 1974 when Bundy entered the basement apartment on a University of Washington student and stabbed her with a metal rod, then sexually assaulted her with a medical inspecting device. He left her to die, but she pulled through with severe injuries and permanent brain damage. A month after the first attack, Bundy beat another UW student unconscious and carried her to his car. He took her to a remote location in Taylor Mountain, where he sexually assaulted and murdered her (Carlson). Bundy started murdering at the rate of once every 30 days. Starting off the pattern, he kidnaped and murdered two more college students form evergreen State College and Oregon State University. It was at this time that the different county sheriff departments were looking into the disappearances. Another UW student and a woman went missing after that. Bundy on committed two more murders in Seattle area by asking three women on separate occasions to help him get his sailboat off his car. The first woman agreed but saw there was no boat, so she ran away. The second woman agreed and was never seen after that. The third woman was never seen again after leaving the picnic. Bundy was sloppy this time, because he introduced himself using his real name, and showing his car to people. Due to Bundy leaving loose ends, the police shared his description, his car, his name Ted, and a foot or arm sling. The police received hundreds of calls, but 2 important ones were from his girlfriend and a woman who he worked with at the Washington state Department of Emergency Services (DES). The DES is one of the departments that were involved in searching for the missing women. Bundy didnt fit the specific profile they had, so he wasnt caught. Bundy had been going to the University of Puget Sounds Law School, but had just been accepted to the University of Utah for law school. When he moved he raped and murdered a hitchhiker in Idaho. He also abducted, dragged into a wooded area, raped and strangled another girl (R?stam). The Utah chief of polices daughter went missing and her body was found nude, severely beaten, and raped days later. Not long after, hikers in a canyon found another girl, also beaten and raped. Carol DaRonch is one of very few to escape Ted Bundy. Bundy approached her dressed as a police officer and told her she needed to go to the police station with him to file a report because someone tried to break into her car. She agreed and went with him, but when she realized Bundy was driving the wrong way, he pulled over and tried to handcuff her. He was successful with one cuff, but she was able to run away to a nearby car and Bundy drove away (Carlson). Hours later, a girl went missing after leaving the theater. A small key was found in the theater parking lot and it unlocked the handcuff of the girl that escaped Bundy just hours before. The girls skeletal remains were found 100 miles from where she was kidnapped. After the disappearances of 3 more women, Bundy took a woman to his hotel room, drowning her, and sexually assaulting her postmortem. In 1975, Bundy was charged with attempted kidnapping and attempted criminal assault of Carol DeRonch. After going to trial for 4 days, he was sentenced to 15 years in Utah State Prison. Later, he was charged with the murder of another woman and transferred to jail in Aspen to wait to go to trial (R?stam). He requested to be his own lawyer and was allowed to be in the library by himself and without shackles. Bundy escaped through the window, but eventually was caught by the police. In his cell, he sawed a hole in the ceiling and crawled into the apartment above, changed into street clothes, and walked out. Bundy made his way to Tallahassee, Florida and continued his killing spree. He snuck into the apartment of two Florida State University students, beating one unconscious and sexually assaulting her with a bottle, and strangling the other, leaving a bite mark on her buttock. Bundy then went on to attack 3 other women, all surviving, but with disabling injuries and leaving behind semen stains and a pantyhose mask with his hair in it. After stealing a car, Bundy had kidnapped and murdered his last victim, before getting pulled over by a police officer and being taken into custody (Harmening).
Ted Bundy was raised by his grandparents, believing that his mother, was his older sister. Bundy never went too deep into his childhood, but what he did talk about was his fascination with pornography. He would search everywhere for magazines with graphic photos displaying rape, murder and sexual assault victims. He eventually started looking in windows and started stealing. He was arrested twice due to being suspected on burglary and auto theft. Old classmates described him as a good student and was well known around the school, but prior to his execution, he said that he had no real friends (Harmening 206-207).
David Berkowitz, Charles Manson, and Ted Bundy all were missing at least 2 of the 3 components in the internal human deterrence system. David Berkowitz was missing the moral and social deterrence due to his arson history and torturing animals, along with acting out at home and school. Charles Manson was missing his moral, self, and social deterrence due to his stealing forcing other males to perform for him. Ted Bundy was missing his moral and social deterrence due to his looking through windows, burglary, and auto theft. Serial killers are developed due to missing 2 out of the 3 components in the internal human deterrence system: moral deterrence, self deterrence, and social deterrence.
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