Higher Education System in Chile 

Topics: Studying Abroad

For my annotated bibliography, my group is focusing on Caribbean & South America. And I chose to study Chile. The purpose of my annotated bibliography is to delve into the higher education system in Chile. I tried to find fifteen sources however I only found thirteen because not all of the articles were available. However, I spoke with one of the librarians, she said that she would request those particular articles for me, but I have to wait a couple of days.

When I receive the materials that I need I will have well over fifteen items. Many of my sources focus on the higher education system in Chile. Mainly focusing on private versus public higher education, market and state funding, Chiles dropout rate and what causes Chilean students to withdraw from classes. Also the European influence on Chilean and Mexican Higher Education. Also, the importance of Investing in Schooling in Chile and how vital it is to provide high school students about Financial Aid for Higher Education.

This article focuses on Private Higher Education with an Academic Focus in Chile. This article is a qualitative study of the Private Higher Education system in Chile. The study gives the reader an overview of the history of higher education in Chile. This article looks at both Public and private universities in Chile and compares the experiences that the students have had at each type of university. Bernasconi’s main aim was to convince the readers through his research that Private universities are better than the public universities in Chile.

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This article also takes a look back in time and reflects on the public and private universities 20 years ago and how they have changed since then. This source was created for readers to have a better understanding of the private and public universities in Chile. This source is useful to the research topic because it provides a detailed history lesson and overview of the types of universities and the student success rate.

In this article Parry, 1997 focuses on the decentralization of education in Chile. Parry conducts a quantitative research study about the Implementation of decentralization in Higher Education. Decentralization as an incremental process, and Achieving balance in decentralization. This article is very important for my research on Chiles higher education system because the readers can see the appropriate balance and responsibilities between the central government and local institutions.

Larrain & Zurita conduct a Quantitative student about the student loan system in Chile’s higher education system and how students loan came about. Larrain & Zurita Analyze the challenges of the student loan system from a public policy point of view. The article focuses on the law that was passed in 2005 that allowed Chilean students to take out student loans. The report concentrates on Effective collection and loan repayment, Private financing, and Reasonable financial load. This study is relevant to my research because it provides one of the most critical situations that happened in higher education and a turning point for Chilean students.

The purpose of this article is to focus on higher education accreditation in Chile. The accreditation systems use statistics and date for the Chilean accreditation regime. The article talks about the procedures that they go by to keep the universities accredited on the graduate and undergraduate level. This article is useful to my research because it touches on accreditation and that is a critical aspect of higher education. The Chilean accreditation regime has helped to establish permanent procedures for quality assurance in higher education institutions which has resulted in improving its internal processes, but still, the system faces a series of challenges that have to be addressed to improve the higher education system as a whole.

Carvaja (2017) conducts a qualitative study about the college dropout rate in Chile and the factors that play a role in students staying in college or dropping out. In Carvajas research he discovered that students who go to class and study from 7 p.m. to 11 p.m. had topped the average dropout rate in the Chilean university system. These students combine family, work and academic responsibilities due to their circumstances. With that being said they show higher dropout rates than the students who enter college without the added duties. This research intended to investigate the factors which interpose the idea for students who take night classes verses day classes and their decision to drop out of college. Which is a big issue in Chile so Carvajas interviewed the student who lost out of college and students who stayed in college. Carvajal asked the students about the reasoning’s why they dropped out. The findings on dropout decisions of evening students with a lot on their plate were: personal conditions and characteristics, capital and academic performance, mishap, and adverse circumstances.

Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world’s developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of improvements, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students.

As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased, and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia, a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico, a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes was unable to change teacher performance.

But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decision-making authority to the schools. Such improvements in Central America have reduced teacher absenteeism, increased teacher work hours, increased homework assignments, and improved parent-teacher relationships. These changes say Vegas, are especially promising in schools where educational quality is low. (Contains 1 table, 1 figure, and 39 notes.)

This paper analyzes the historical European influences on Latin American higher education. It describes three critical types of impacts. Which are university government, academic exchanges, and the organization of professorships? According to some experts in higher education, adopting the European Higher Education model has been very significant in Latin American Higher Education because it has some characteristics of the American model and some characteristics of the European model. Such as, the concept of professionalization which is from the American models and the tuning project and bologna process which is from the European model. This research article delves into the core of the European influence on Chilean higher education. This research article examines the relationship and the history that Chile has with the European countries when it comes to higher education. Chile main goal is to have quality education for their fellow students. Figueroa, F. E. (2008) also examines Chiles participation within the EU-LAC (the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean).

In this research, Matear examines the higher education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective.  This peer-reviewed article is essential to my research because it thoroughly examines the history of justice and the challenges that Chile had to face within education. The legal confines of the education system were created below the neoliberal model and made known to the military government in 1973-1990. The situation caused friction between the practice and policy in higher education in Chile. As a result, there were barriers put in places such as institutional funding, quality of education and the admissions process.

Brunner conducted a Quantitative study about the changes in the structure of Chile’s higher education system. The changes resulted in significant reforms in 1980-1990. Brunner’s research examines the key objectives and approaches of the new government. Focusing on the nature of the relationships between the system, state, and society which is currently an issue between the market now a central theme.

Sapelli and Vial research the performance of the students in private versus public schools. They took date from the families and students who attend private and public schools. The researchers ask why they chose one vouchers system over another. The article determines that the voucher system works to provide a better education to those that use it.

This article takes a more in-depth look into Chile’s educational system as well as the current policy reforms that President Michelle Bachelet is looking to establish. This paper explores the “Proyecto de Ley de Final Lucro, la Selección y el Copago,” which aims to eliminate private for-profit institutions within the public system, admission selectivity, and mandatory copay fees. With this initiative, Bachelet’s administration and the Ministry of Education intend to end the inequality of access to education which is a problem in Chile. This brings Chiles voucher system into a debate. I think this article is very important to my research because I found another article that explains the voucher system in Chile and this article explains both sides of the voucher system and the pros and cons determining whether Chile can improve its state of affairs by maintaining a privatized and decentralized system, or if it should move towards a fully public and centralized system as directed by Bachelet.

Dinkelman explores the effects of providing low-income Chilean adolescents with information about how to fund their higher education. Dinkelman probes whether providing parents with the information increases the effects on the number of adolescents who attend college. Dinkelman randomly allotted eighth graders and some parents to receive information about aid for higher education. Exposure to information raised college preparatory high school enrollment, primary school attendance, and financial aid knowledge, with gains concentrated among medium‐ and high‐grade students. Parental exposure to information did not significantly magnify these effects. The results of the researchers demonstrate that access to relevant information about financial aid affects important schooling choices long before tertiary education begins.

In this paper, we estimate the marriage market returns to being admitted to a higher ranked (i.e., more ‘elite’) university by exploiting the unique features of the Chilean university admission system. This system centrally allocates applicants based on their university entrance test score, which allows us to identify causal effects by using a regression discontinuity approach. Moreover, the Chilean context provides us with the necessary data on the long run outcome ‘partner quality.’

We find that being admitted to a higher ranked university has substantial returns regarding partner quality for women, while estimates for men are about half the size and not significantly different from zero.

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Higher Education System in Chile . (2021, Dec 13). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/higher-education-system-in-chile/

Higher Education System in Chile 
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