2019 ACADEMIC YEAR
Curriculum Development and Practice CFC3702
(e.g. 1, 2 or 3, etc.).
Section A ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 3
Section B ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 6
References ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 10
? The syllabus is portrayed as the outline of the themes secured or units to be instructed
within the specific subject AND curriculum allude to the overall content, instructed in
an in structive framework or a course (Engelbrecht, 2008) .
? Syllabus is descriptive in nature, but the curriculum is prescriptive.
? The curriculum includes a more extensive scope than the syllabus. A syllabus is derived
(Kandjeo -Marenga, 2014)
? Syllabus implies the subjects as well as the themes secured within the course of study.
On the other hand, curriculum infers the chapters and scholastic content instructed in
school or college (Kandjeo -Marenga, 2014) .
? Lesson plans depict in detail what and how an instructor intends to instruct on a day -to-
day basis; the arrangement of activities, understudy gathering, and assets utilized.
the other hand, curriculum may be a handle for recording what substance and abilities
are really instructed in a classroo m, school, or district amid a longer period .
? Lesson plans are done according to the curriculum
? Curriculum which is the subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college.
Have to be implemented first for it to be in effect. As implementation means the
process of putting a decision or plan into effect; execution.
? After the designation of curriculum, it will be put into action which is called
(Wolfaardt, Curri culum development and practices, 2012)
? Assessment is an aspect of curriculum ; it is done based on the curriculum (Wolfaardt,
2. According to (Eisner & Vallance, 1974) as cited in (Wolfaardt, Curriculum development
and practices, 2012) they described the primarily concerns of the five conceptions of
? Primarily concerned with the refinement of intellectual operations
? Concerned with understanding the processes by which learning occurs in
? Centers on the how not the what, abilities that can be connected to
? What is the learners relationship with the materials?
? Centers on the child, not the social setting, improvement of cognitive
? focus is mainly on the techniques that teachers use to present learning
? too centers on process; how learning is communicated or encouraged,
? a value -free framework; brief and to the point,
? the dialect of generation, frameworks to deliver learning in predicable ways;
? emphatically esteem immersed; child centered;
? centers strongly on substance; people find for themselves; (The present
experience of the learner is a major focus )
? emphasizes individual growth;
? gives coordinates encounters; substance and devices for self -discovery;
? orientated towards emotional, psychological, spiritual growth and
? solid accentuation on the association to the bigger social setting;
? stresses societal needs over person needs;
? specialist for social alter;
? Devices for person survival in a changing world;
? Issues of political control be incorporated; two bunches (1) ve rsatile, more
preservationist and (2) reformists, more forceful authority.
? most tradition -bound;
? social transmission of the built up disciplines;
? represent mental movement at its best;
? Hutchins, bring out our common humankind, instead of our individ uality;
? a few later alter in inflexibility, experiencing considerable alter
3. (Wolfaardt, Curriculum development and practices, 2012) explained them as follows:
a) It can be referred to as the planned program of objectives, content, learning
experiences, resources and assessment offered by a school. It can also be referred to as
the planned course of study. (pp . 16) E.g. Biology content as a subject
b) This is every thing that is learnt during school activities that is not a designated part of
the official curriculum. It is everything that is picked up e.g. the role of the teacher,
learner, status, attitudes to learning and everything that is not officially prescri bed in
the official curriculum for it is implicit, embedded and taken -for -granted procedures
c) Is characterized as experientially based in terms of substance and instructing strategies
that accentuates the viable side of the subjects e.g. engine mechanics in VTC .
d) Could be a wide explanation of the largely inspirations for a course as such to create
an understanding of the hypothesis behind an educational modules or a subject to create
pertinent abilities. E.g. Life science aim; Scientific skills (Ministry of Education, 2015)
e) May be a general explanation for the ultimate result to be accomplished and it serve as
a premise for decision -making, e.g. at the end of this course an understudies ought to
be able to compose within the Biology dialect.
f) Is an exact, precise depiction of required result from learners, e.g., an understudy ought
to be able to clarify how blood circulate all through the human body (M inistry of
1. Agreeing to (Olivia & Kirkland, 2012) as cited in (Wolfaardt, Curriculum development
and practices, 2012) , there is the taking after Six -Step Approach to curriculum designing.
? Distinguish and characterize the issue and know what precisely what ought to be
? Curriculum designer must know who your target audience is and what the target
? When designing curriculum, you must distinguish the conclusion towards which
the exertion is directed. Decide the objectives and targets, whereby they are
particular and quantifiable that will coordinate the choice of curricular substance,
clearly communicate the purpose to all, and recommend what learning strategies
will be most effective to accomplish the objectives and destinations.
? Distinguish the instructive methodologies by which the curricular exercises will
be accomplished, and Indeed include the substance and methodology. The
designer must give the implies by which curricular objectives are to be
? The designer must have now to recognize adequate assets, support, and other
components to effectively execute the curriculum.
? After gone through and done with the previous steps, t he arrange to assess the
ad equacy of the curriculum must be depicted . All the loose ends must be closed
and g ive data almost nonstop for quality advancement.
It has been said that, once the six steps have been completed, the curriculum designers start again
with a needs evaluation to survey what changes are required (Cycle starts once more.).
2. The Namibian instruction is in a way based on the behavioral reasoning of Tyler. As h is
method of reasoning too highlighted a critical set of variables that we will weigh against
the questions he raised. According to (Wolfaardt, Curriculum development and practices,
2012) Tyler accepted that the structure of the school educational programs too had to be
responsive to three central components that speak to the most components of an educative
encounter. These are as takes after: the nature of the learner (formative component s, learner
interface and needs, life encounters, etc.); the values and points of society (democratizing
standards, values and demeanors); information of subject matter (what is accepted to be
commendable and usable information). Looking at the Namibian wid e curriculum, they
have started the curriculum policy Education for all which needs that we create another
way to think around our framework of instruction and preparing and how we organize it
(Kristensen, 2009) . From the Go als for Namibian Essential Instruction (access, quality,
equity and democracy. within the Namibian outline school subjects competencies,
Areas of Learning (such as science, social, commerce etc.) and Aims are determined
based on the Tylers three c entral variables (Kristensen, 2009) . Thus, it can be concluded
that Tylers contribution to our Namibian curriculum is relevant.
Current curriculum models can be broken down into two wide categories the product
model and the process model (Stutt, 2018) .
? The product model is results -oriented. Grades are the prime objective, with the
center lying more on the wrapped up product instead of on the learning process.
? The process model , in any case, is more open -ended, and centers on how learning
4. (Wolfaardt, Curriculum development and practices, 2012) discussed the learner centered
? Learning ought to be upgraded which the learner should be dynamic within the
learning environment. Which actually mean learners must be highly /fully engaged
in what ever is being presented to them. E.g. (Flom, 2013) giving and let learners to
illuminate issues, assess prove, analyze contentions, produce hypotheses all those
learning aptitudes fundamental to acing fabric within the teaching .
? Learning ought to be based on the on -going lives of the learners and center on their
interface and needs. E.g. the N amibian curriculum should focus on how learners
must cope themselves with any difficulties they will encounter in their live such as
? Moreover, learning ought to center on the meaning that the substance and
encounters hav e for the learners, and the relationship between learning and feeling.
? The curriculum ought to too center on issues around liberation by making a
difference in learners to pick up mindfulness, competencies and states of mind that
will empower them to requi re control of their lives. E.g. the curriculum
emphasizing on how to do proper decisions about ones life, structuring awareness
about teenage pregnancy, HIV/AIDS etc.
? In this curriculum substance is critical within the sense that it should be based on
the wants and interface of the learner, that will offer assistance to them to create
the competencies and demeanors to liberate them from social treachery and it ought
5. (Wolfaardt, Curriculum development and pr actices, 2012) listed and described the role
? The learners ; as ought to be permitted to take part in their possess assessment,
ought to be empowered to do peer assessment, ought to learn how to reflect on their
claim learning and ought to gotten to be accomplices within the curriculum handle.
? The instructors ; as ought to offer assistance to create appraisal exercises for
learners ought to assess their claim execution as well as that of their colleagues.
They ought to be prepared to ended up intelligent of their possess hones, ought to
be included in agreeable curr iculum work, and ought to be mindful nearby others
? Parents and the community ; as ought to not as it were be collectors of assessment
data, but be given the opportunity to take part in assessment assignments. They
ought to contribut e to all angles of educational modules counting assessment.
? The regional offices; because they are the watch dogs of curriculum usage and
assessment in arrange to guarantee that assessment was done accurately at the level
and according to the syllabus, which it was reasonable and solid.
6. According to (Katjavivi, 2016) , the following are factors that have pressurized Namibians
? Lack of teaching facilities
? The need for upgrading the skills of instructors in the vocational training program
? Inadequate pre -primary development
? Linguistic Diversity
? Poor Teaching Methodology
? Low Teacher Motivation and High Absenteeism
? Inadequate Teacher Qualification and Support
Eisner, E. W., & Vallance, E. (1974). Five conceptions of curriculum: Their roots and implications
for curriculum planning. In E. W. Eisner, & E. Vallance (Eds.), Conflicting Conceptions
of Curriculum (pp. 1 -18). Berkley, As cited in Wolfaardt 2012: PA: McCutchan
Engelbrecht, F. D. (2008). General Teaching Methodology. (W. de Waal, Ed.) Windhoek,
University of Namibia, Namibia: Centre for Open, Distance & eLearning.
Flom, J. (2013, June 3). Choice for learning. Choice for life . Retrieved from Q.E.D. Foundation:
-characteristics -of -learner -centered -teaching/
Kandjeo -Marenga, H. U. (2014). Teaching methods of Biology. Windhoek, University Of
Namibia, Namibia: Cent re for Open, Distance & eLearning.
Katjavivi, P. H. (2016). EDUCATIONAL TRANSFORMATION IN NAMIBIA. Forum of the
Commonwealth Council on Education (pp. 10 -12). Windhoek: Palierment of Republic Of
Kristensen, J. O. (2009). Reform and/or change? The Namibian. Windhoek, Teacher Educator and
Project Manager for the Life Science Project Ibis/MBEC, Namibia. Retrieved from
Ministry of Education, A. a. (2015). Aims. In Life Science Syllabus Grades 8 & 9 (pp. 1 -2).
Okahanja: National Institute for Educational Development (NIED). doi:ISBN: 978 99945
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Olivia, S. O., & Ki rkland, R. (2012). Six -Step Approach to Curriculum Development. As cited in
Wolfaardt 2012 (Curriculum development and practices).
Stutt, A. (2018, October 25). Curriculum Development and The 3 Models Explained . Retrieved
from Top Hat Blog, New To Teaching : -development –
Wolfaardt, D. (2012). Curriculum development and practices. (C. Villet, Ed.) Windhoek,
Materials Development and Instructional Design Department, Namibia: Centre for Open,
Wolfaardt, D. (2014). Assessment and Evaluation. Windhoek, University Of Namibia: Centre of