Annotated Bibliography

Franck, Linda S., et al. “Opioid and Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptoms in Pediatric Intensive Care Patients.” NeuroImage, Academic Press, 11 Sept. 2004,

The main issue this article emphasizes is the extent of addiction to prescription opioids and their withdrawal symptoms on users. The article provides statistical analysis of children that were subjected to prescription opioid use either for heart disease or respiratory failure. It gives a background on the fatality of withdrawals of opioids, especially fentanyl. The article further illustrates a specific kind of withdrawal syndrome called Iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome that only occurroccursabrupt the discontinuation of opioids and benzodiazepine therapy.

The article further mentions that the quality of these prescription opioids needs to be increased since OBWS, the board which monitors the withdrawal score of opioids itself pointed it out.

The source’s credibility is high since it’s a google scholar article published in a renowned book called ‘Intensive and Critical CareNursing’. The references in his article are thorough and accurate since statistical data of a large number of patients suffering from opioid withdrawals are mentioned by credible sources.

My paper deals with the rise of the opioid epidemic which includes the increased use of prescription opioids and their effects. This article deals with the question adequately by considering a wide range of age groups and describing opioid withdrawal effects onincreasing them. However, it does not cover the dangers of constant use of opioids and their abuse, especially amongst millennials.

Baumblatt, Jane A. Gwira, et al.

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“Opioids and Overdose Deaths.” JAMA, American Medical Association, 1 May 2014,

This article explains in great detail the increasing opioid epidemic in the country. It identifies the stakeholder which is prescription opioid users. The article not only gives a statistical analysis of deaths caused by prescription opioids by mentioning that from January 1990 through December 2010, but drug overdose death rates in the United States also increased from 3.4 to 12.4 per 100 000 population. It further goes on to compare this data in contrast to motor vehicle death rates by mentioning that opioids related deaths have been more than motor vehicle deaths since 2009. The article gives specific data of states that suffer from the opioid epidemic by stating opioid crisis data of the state of Tennessee. The article defines the crude association between unintentional and undetermined intent prescription opioid-related deaths and the defined high-risk factors expressed as MORs.

The source that is cited is from the Journal of American Medical Association which is a renowned peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year. This article explains the answer to my question in great depth and detail. It adds credibility to my rant for deduction in opioids prescription by pointing out that prescription opioids account for more deaths than heroin and cocaine combined. It mentions the coalition of drug monitoring programs with drug enforcement agencies back in 2006 in Tennessee. If a coalition were required at that timeonee can imagine how bad the situation is now. By referring to different case studies such as the 24-month case-control study period (2009-2010) which reported 932 opioid-related overdose deaths in Tennessee, the journal strengthens my argument that prescription opioids need to be regulated more strictly.

Murthy, Vivek H. “Ending the Opioid Epidemic – A Call to Action | NEJM.” New England Journal of Medicine, 22 Dec. 2016,

This article provides different stories of individuals suffering from opioids related problems. It identifies these individuals as stakeholders. The article also gives a summary of a campaign called ‘Turn the Tide Rx’. This campaign is led by leading U.S doctors calling for action against the rise of the opioid epidemic. The article not only gives a detailed explanation of how this campaign works by providing stories of individuals across the U.S but also addresses the efforts by the government to stop the opioid problem. The article further goes on to describe these efforts by stating about the ‘Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008’ but at the same time, it calls for an urgent strict policy towards prescription opioids.

Since my current questions deal with the opioid epidemic this article could not have explained it better. It mentions the stakeholder by explicitly stating the heartbreaking stories of individuals suffering from opioid abuse. It states that in Napaskiak, a remote fishing village in Alaska with fewer than 500 people the residents complained that their clinic had been broken into multiple times by people seeking prescription opioids. This points out perfectly the ever-growing opioid use and its rise specifically in American society. By stating in the article that opioids use cuts across different boundaries such as economic status, race, and education. It propels the readers and the government to take an aggressive approach to end opioid abuse.

Roberts, Andrew W et al. “Lock-In Programs and the Opioid Epidemic: A Call for Evidence” American journal of public health vol. 106,11 (2016): 1918-1919.

This journal mentions a reform named CARA that was passed by Congress to fight the growing opioid epidemic. CARA stands for comprehensive Addiction and recovery act and it contains initiatives to fight America’s opioid crisis. The journal further explains the different initiatives which are part of CARA called the llock-inprograms. Lock-in programs commonly known as LIP acts as an abuse prevention measure by identifying beneficiaries exhibiting “high-risk” opioid use and restricting their access to one prescriber and pharmacy. The article explains in great depth the foresight of CARA by addressing that it directs LIPs to alleviate barriers to necessary care and ensures “reasonable access” to necessary drugs. It further explains how they work by stating that LIP enrollees take into account geographic location, beneficiary preference, impact on cost-sharing, and reasonable travel time.

The journal takes a different approach to the opioid crisis but still refers to the stakeholder which is of course the patients. The journal starts by mentioning programs and laws introduced by the government to fight the opioopioidsis such as LIPs hence giving us a background on government effort to fight the crisis. It is a credible journal since it is published by PMC which is part of the US National Institutes of health. By providing conclusions that lock-in programs appear destined to take a larger role in national efforts to combat the opioid epidemic, the journal gives a sense of hope for a better and cleansed future.

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Annotated Bibliography. (2022, Jun 21). Retrieved from

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