Nanotechnology covers a different phenomenon that prepare novel operation in various fields. Nanotechnology assured a renewable future by its growth in green chemistry to develop green nanotechnology. Green nanotechnology intend not only to give Nano-products, but also to produce nanomaterial without degrading the environment or human health. It is established that current fossil fuel use is unsustainable and related with ozone harming substance production.
The significant advances such as hydrogen fuel, solar cell, biotechnology depends upon nanotechnology and the applicable evident for manipulate the future energy for the well-disposed conditions are reviewed.
This review reproduce how nanotechnology can be advantages as a green preference in various parts of nanoparticle synthesis.
Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field of science that requests to oversee, deliver and create novel chance to utilize science, designing and new methodologies with nanoscale development to help human and environment health. The term nanotechnology is utilised to describe the formation and misuse of products with structural features in between those atoms and bulk materials with at least one dimension in the nanometres extend.
(1*10-9m). Nano science and nanotechnology incorporates the synthesis, examination, utilization of nanostructured materials.
Green nanotechnology grounds on field of Green Chemistry that reflects the fundamental point of nanotechnology to make eco-friendly Nano-objects to scale back human health and environmental hazards by objectives of green Nano-products. Green nanotechnology simply refers to field of nanotechnology to enhance the environmental sustainability and to maintain eco-friendly environment. (2-7)
Green nanotechnology has two main goals: developing nanomaterials and items without hurting the atmosphere or human wellbeing and creating nano – products that offers solutions to common issues.
It utilizes existing principles of green chemistry and green engineering to make nano products and nanomaterials without harmful material, at less temperature utilising less energy and sustainable information sources wherever possible and using lifecycle thinking in all designs and engineering stages.
In addition to making nanomaterials and items with less effect to nature, green nanotechnology also means utilizing nanotechnology to make current manufacturing, forms for non-nano materials and items all the more ecologically friendly. For example, nanoscale films can help isolate wanted compound response items from waste materials. Nanoscale catalysts can make substance responses more efficient and less wasteful. Sensors at the nanoscale can form a part of process control frameworks, working with nano-empowered information system.
The second goal of green nanotechnology is to creating new products of the recycling of nanomaterials that benefits directly or indirectly to the environment. Nanomaterial or products can clean unsafe waste destinations, treat poison, desalinate water, or sense and screen natural toxins. Green Nanotechnology takes a broad systems view of nanomaterials and products, assure that unexpected consequences are minimized and that impacts are anticipated throughout the full life cycle. (8-11)
The nanomaterials have high surface volume proportion because of their to a great degree little size which makes the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles containing materials very outstanding to those of the mass materials (12). Additionally, the optical, electronic, and reactant properties of nanoparticles are extraordinarily affected by their size, shape, and gem structure (13). From origin nanoparticle combination has been done through two methodologies.
Hydrogen fuel and fuel cell: – Energy components work quietly, which create low voltage coordinate current from the chemically electrochemical response between a fuel and an oxidizer and its related assistant hardware incorporates: pumps to transport the fuel through the framework and to evacuate the water delivered in the response; a blower or blower to cool the stack and to pass on oxygen to the energy component; and maybe a humidifier (14-18).
Top down approach- breakdown method by which a big component is broken down into smaller ones of desired size, and (B) Bottom up approach- build-up method that starts from atoms and is based on atomic transformations and molecular condensation.
In a hydrogen-oxygen power device with a corrosive electrolyte, sub-atomic vaporous hydrogen is bolstered in the anode side. The electrons are stripped out of the H2 particles, leaving emphatically charged hydrogen particles (19-21). These migrate through the electrolyte layer to the decidedly charged cathode, where they join with oxygen to frame water. At the same time, the freed electrons (electric current) spill out of the anode through a wire or some other metallic material back to the cathode for performing work, for instance, working an electric motor, lightning up a light bulb, or powering up a cell phone (28).
There are several basic types of fuel cells listed as follows, differentiated by their electrolytes and the operated temperature ranges (22-25).
For solar energy, engineers have been endeavouring to create control from sun oriented warm vitality for a century. Presently, the innovation is at long last going to grow up. The extent of sun oriented radiation that achieves the Earth’s surface every year is in excess of 10,000 times of the present yearly worldwide vitality utilization. Meantime, solar energy struck the earth on a single day is more than the world utilized yearly, which is the reason that the sun is as engaging as an extreme vitality source. So in the photovoltaic network, changing over sunlight based photons into electrons economically enough to contend with fossil energizes remains an exploration challenge. With the customary single crystals silicon solar energy, the best revealed most extreme proficiency from unmistakable light is 24.7 percent (26-28).
Nanotechnology may help to both raise the proficiency and bring down the expenses of tapping sunlight based vitality. Vast single precious stones of silicon are expensive developed. Less expensive sun based cells might be fabricated from shapeless and microcrystalline silicon; although such innovations are less proficient than the single crystalline silicon (the best detailed is 12 to 14 percent), the assembling forms are about a large portion of the cost (29).
Applications in the propelled control age innovations are additionally predicted. The catalysts specified above should have the immediate use in enhancing the performance of fuel cells, which are ending up industrially reasonable quite recently. Mixture photovoltaic solar cells in light of leading polymers and semiconductor nanorods likewise hold exceptional guarantee; by joining the great electronic properties of inorganic semiconductors with the procedure adaptability of natural polymers, specialists are homing in on the PV gadgets with great efficiencies that are less demanding and significantly less costly to be produced than that of the customary sun oriented cells. Early models have exhibited control change with the moderately low efficiencies in the research centre. Thusly, a more elevated amount of transformation proficiency ought to be moved forward fundamentally through building refinement and new material formulation (30-31).
It should be pointed out that to date there is still argument on:
In a word, in spite of the remarkable accomplishments of the solar industry to date, unfortunately, costs are still too high for the really large-scale use on par with fossil fuels today.
Biotechnology: – While trying to reduce non-renewable energy source use and CO2 emissions, fuels, warmth or power must be delivered from organic sources in a way that is economic, energetically productive, environment friendly and not aggressive with nourishment creation. In the past decade, many scientists apply biological organisms, systems, and processes related to DNA in industrial concerns, forming a new crosscutting technology platform known as biotechnology (32).
Biofuels are commercially produced from sugar, starch and oil-seed based feedstocks currently. For example, bio alcohol is produced from corn starch, soybean, palm fruits, and rape and canola seeds are the common feedstocks for biodiesel production. The further expansion of biofuel production will trigger the debate on food/feed versus fuel. Thus, for the sustainable biofuel production, non-food feedstock should be used.
In the present methods, starch, which has various advantages over other fuels in terms of cost and convenience in handling and manufacturing, is also investigated and used as a fuel or a fuel component for a combustor such as a boiler, kiln, dryer or furnace (33-35). Therefore, for the use of biomass producing fuels, more efficient biomass conversion techniques would help make biofuels more cost-competitive. Land availability and crop selection are major issues in biomass fuel usage. Biomass alternatives can be expected to grow to a significantly larger scale for providing fuel (36).
Biomimetic materials research begins with the investigation of structure-work connections in natural materials. Based on the methodologies found in nature, bio-inspired materials will be produced to outline the related composite materials, or on the other hand material structures, which normally offering predominant properties also, usefulness, for example, predominant properties, various levelled structures, predominant gathering components, superior process control, multi-usefulness and adaptability, and holding tremendous potential for enhancing the abilities of an extensive variety of mechanical parts and frameworks (36-37).
Wind power is the change of wind energy into a useful type of energy, for example, utilizing wind turbines for making electricity, to twist plants for mechanical power, wind pumps for pumping water or waste, or sails for driving ships. As materials science, it will clearly play an important part in creating coatings, greases and lightweight solid composite materials that are important for constructing Wind control is the transformation of wind energy into a useful form of energy, for example, utilizing wind turbines for influencing power, to twist plants for mechanical power, wind pumps for pumping water or waste, or sails for impelling ships.
As materials science, it will unmistakably play a vital part in creating coatings, greases and lightweight durable composite materials that are important for constructing turbines blades and towers. There is scope to develop embedded Sensors /sensing materials, which can monitor stability and damage to take the instant safeguarding (38-41).
Nuclear energy is the energy acquired by manipulating the internal structure of atoms. Nuclear energy is obtained from by dividing the nucleus (nuclear fission) or by the joining of two atoms (nuclear fusion). This energy is used to produce electricity in nuclear power plants.
Oil and Coal as the universal energy resource will have a long term part in giving energy decent variety and security. As society moves from an economy in light of non
Renewable energy sources to a more manageable energy blend, researchers and architects will be required not exclusively to create maintainable energy arrangements yet additionally to discover more proficient methods for creating, refining and utilizing non-renewable energy sources during the transitions.
At the same time, increasing the traditional power efficiency and recycling should be sought. It is distinct that renewable resources such as solar, wind and ocean power exploited by nanotechniques will be promisingly reliable solutions to diminishing the dependence on depleting petroleum supplies. Moreover, regardless of the specific nanotechnology or the specific energy application, finding either new sources of power or new efficiencies will require new breakthrough technologies. In the foreseeable future, research on the remediation of environmental problems and its relevant green technologies will be realized to make the new clean eco-energy sources practical on a commercial scale.
Nanotechnology has a revolutionary effect on different fields of science, systems and industry. The current development in field of nanotechnology has utilise the power to change phytochemicals into nanoparticles by mean of green science as this will moderate nanotechnology’s effect on stability of the environment.
The development in nanotechnology affairs in natural approach is developing at a bigger stretch out to save fuels, reduce materials for generation, poisonous effect on therapeutic care, and monitor environment pollutants and green manufacture.