School supplies are necessary to every individual, we can use it in many angles such as writing reports, improving outputs, finishing school works and many more. Mostly students and teachers stand in need of those materials in school. Marker is very essential for any student or teacher regardless to which prohibition they belong to, it is just likely important as a pen or pencil is to any student or teacher. With regards to their functions, it is not concealed that they are not only convenient in education sector but is also more appropriate for people in Commercial and Art sector.
In our present time, dry erase markers tend to dry out and fade easily. Commercialized whiteboard markers are commonly used until now, but the problem is that they can hold onto some of the pigment, causing a ghosted or streaked look which may appear after many trials.
Being resourceful is very important to subdue the economic crisis we are facing as of today.
Nowadays, the schools are not only using chalkboards because it is proven that chalk dusts can cause some diseases on human health. The potential acute health effects of calcium sulfate or calcium carbonate in chalk dust include irritation to the eyes, skin, respiratory tract, mucous membranes and digestive tract; the potential chronic health concerns are lung and liver damage resulting from exposure to calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate particles, respectively (Sciencelab.com, 2005a, b). With that, whiteboard and glass boards are being utilized. For some reasons, students are required to bring their own whiteboard marker.
Due to the expensive amount of the commercialized whiteboard markers, the researchers conducted this study to test if charcoal and used engine oil can be used as an alternative dry erase marker ink.
The main purpose of this study is to show whether or not, used engine oil and charcoal can be used as a substitute whiteboard marker ink. Through this study, the researchers can promote recycling and reusing some wasted materials similar to what the researchers will do in this study. Also to make a budget-friendly writing material which is identical to the commercial one. We, the researchers want to provide an alternative way to produce a whiteboard marker ink and to help everyone acquire a less expensive whiteboard marker ink. By conducting this study, its either we will produce a whiteboard marker that is much more enhanced than the commercialized marker or both will be equal in terms of writing quality.
This study will investigate if charcoal and used engine oil can be used as an alternative dry erase marker ink.
Specifically, this will seek to answer the following questions:
1. Can the charcoal and used engine oil be used as an alternative dry erase marker ink?
2. Is there any significant difference between the charcoal and used engine oil as a dry erase marker ink and commercialized dry erase marker ink in terms of:
This study can provide benefits to peoples lives. The significance of conducting this study was to help the community specifically the teachers and students to avoid spending too much money. If the researchers succeeded on this study, it would be much easier to an individual to conduct its own way on creating its alternative whiteboard marker that can contribute a lot of things specifically to us and to our environment. Because we are allowed to use whiteboard markers to discuss the lessons, instead of using commercialized products.
This study focuses on making an alternative dry erase marker ink using charcoal and used engine oil. The selected experimental group are limited to the Junior High School Science Teachers at Potrero National High School. This experimental group will be surveyed and interviewed by testing the alternative dry erase marker ink made from charcoal and used engine oil which was made by the researchers so they can collect the feedback or comments from the Science teachers.
We, the researchers will be comparing the desired product to the commercial one in terms of absorption, stick consistency and color. This study was designed to teach users to use the alternative method (charcoal and used engine oil dry erase marker ink) instead of the commercial product (babanggain nating product) as it is cheaper and environment-friendly.
This chapter will focus on mainly the Review of Related Literature. This is basically the origin of the study which tackles some related information on the study from other researchers in the past. This will also serve as the database and to see the mistakes those researchers have made in order to avoid making the same mistake. This chapter also has the hypothesis, which are educated guess, which will answer the questions in the statement of the problem.
According to Kenneth K Dagde et.al, of River State University (Mar. 19, 2019), charcoal served as a pigment, used lube oil served as the primary binder or resin, ethanol served as solvent and gum Arabic served as an additive. The charcoal was obtained from processing of Mango, Oil bean (Ugba) and rubber trees, which were further crushed to their finest particles respectively and the used lube oil was obtained from mechanical engineering servicing unit of automobile engines.
Angana, Richelle et.al, of Antipolo City Senior High School stated that, the ink that being used in whiteboard marker are made up of xylene and toluene. These materials are very harmful and hazardous to the health of the users and likewise to our environment. Charcoal can be an alternative ingredient for ink instead of petroleum dyes. The charcoal is frequently used and can be found all over the Philippine archipelago. A coal is a metamorphic rock because of the exposure to the elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon that produces dark color.
According to the source, which is in the presentation of Cruz, Sahagun and Valero, it is said that in the ancient times, people have used oil, and even making use of improvised sticks and stones. The most common evidence of this in the hieroglyphics found inscribed in caves. After a while, these people felt a something that they could write with more efficiently and effectively. The peoples growing curiosity about these things eventually motivated them to the advancement and modernization that we are still experiencing today.
Now, in modern times, we have all sorts of writing materials such as mechanical pencils, colored markers and different kinds of pens. But the one we are focusing one is the whiteboard marker, a marker that can be erased with just simple wiping, causing it to be the most favorable writing tool for teaching alongside with chalk, but, it also has its disadvantage such as its affordability as the whiteboard marker ink is expensive. So in this study, we have come up with a simple, cheap alternative to the whiteboard marker ink.
This study focuses on procedures used for proving the feasibility of charcoal and used engine oil as an alternative whiteboard marker ink and what similarities and differences between the two has. This study focuses on whiteboard marker ink out of the said materials.
A group of researchers by the names of ARMSTRONG, Alexandra Emilia L., et.al, conducted an investigatory project entitled, Charcoal as a Primary Agent For an alternative Printer Ink. And according to the results of their study, it is stated that, it is possible to make an ink out of a charcoal but the word that will be written are not consistently visible. The small particles are maybe the reason why the ink was not turning out of fully black.
According to Venise Cruz et.al, conclude that, the amount of used engine oil affects the intensity of color and as well as the quality of the end product. The less used engine oil is applied, the less intense the color will get. Aside from that, the benefits to be gained by conducting the research are far beneficiary by the citizens of the countries all throughout the world in terms of recycling. This only proves that charcoal, a light black residue consisting of carbon and any remaining ash, can be used to create an alternative whiteboard marker ink as the latter can be classified as carbon inks.
Another group of researchers by names of Kenneth K Dagde et.al, of River State University (Mar. 19, 2019), stated that, ink produced from the oil bean (ugba) charcoal and lube oil was best in terms of write-ability and quality in the production of white board marker ink.
1. Charcoal and used engine oil can be used as an alternative dry erase marker ink.
2. There is a significant difference between the charcoal and used engine oil as a dry erase marker ink and commercialized dry erase marker ink in terms of color.
3. There is a significant difference between the charcoal and used engine oil as a dry erase marker ink and commercialized dry erase marker ink in terms of Absorption.
4. There is a significant difference between the charcoal and used engine oil as a dry erase marker ink and commercialized dry erase marker ink in terms of stick consistency.
1. Charcoal and used engine oil cannot be used as an alternative dry erase marker ink.
2. There is no significant difference between the charcoal and used engine oil as a dry erase marker ink and commercialized dry erase marker ink in terms of color.
3. There is no significant difference between the charcoal and used engine oil as a dry erase marker ink and commercialized dry erase marker ink in terms of Absorption.
4. There is no significant difference between the charcoal and used engine oil as a dry erase marker ink and commercialized dry erase marker ink in terms of stick consistency.
2. Charcoal- one of the main ingredient that gives color to the desired product.
3. Engine oil- solvent added to the charcoal in order to produce ink.
4. Dry erase marker-
5. Ink- the product will be produced
8. Stick Consistency
9. Alternative- another reliable source