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Title: How to Make Wine Specific purpose: To inform my audience on how to make wine at home. I. Introduction A. Attention Material: “Wine makes daily living easier, less hurried, with fewer tensions and more tolerance. ” – Benjamin Franklin B. Credibility material: I have been brewing beer & making wine for 4 years now with just over about 846 gallons under my belt.
C. Preview: I will explain the basics which include the equipment needed, the process of making the wine the basics of the fermentation process. . II. Decisions, Decisions * Wine from the kit… esigned to drink sooner (some less than 30 days, from start to finish) a. Convenient, everything is premeasured and equipped with specific instructions – nearly Idiot-proof b. Wine from scratch… -. Complete creative control (more of an art than a process) – More enjoyable – You choose your supplies/chemicals: fruit, specific yeast etc.
III. Equipment Needed… a. Carboy – good for fermentation as well as aging b. Hydrometer -used to determine the alcohol level and specific gravity of the wine c. Thermometer – wine has to be a certain temperature to ferment (not too cold) d.
Fermentation lock (air lock) – allows fermentation gases to escape, while keeping air out e. Siphon tubing – long plastic tube instrumental in the racking process f. Wine thief or unused turkey baster – used for testing the wine throughout the entire process g.
Funnel h. Long plastic spoon IV. 2 necessary skills in order to make a good wine. a. Reading a Hydrometer – A hydrometer is used to help you control how much alcohol by volume (ABV) you want the finished wine to be and to help keep track of the status of your wine.
This will help determined how much water and sugar you will need to raise or lower the specific Gravity (SG) of your wine, with is the measuring the how dense the sugars are making the must. b. Read a Thermometer. – The temperature of you fermenting wine is very important. If the yeast are too cold they will kind of shut off, stalling or stopping fermentation. If they are to hot they will be over stressed and produce negative flavors, and die faster. V. Chemicals a. Campden – Prevents “wild” or lambic yeast from growing. b. Potassium or “K” sorbate – This is a preservative as well as inhibits any yeast growth. . Wine or Champagne yeast – For fermentation d. Yeast nutrient – Supports healthy yeast, helps yeast stay alive throughout the fermentation process e. Yeast Energizer – an energy drink for the yeast f. Fining Agents – pulls dead yeast and fruit particles to the bottom of the carboy, helps in racking g. Tannin – that give wine a bitter, dry, or puckery feeling in the mouth h. Sugar. – For the yeast to eat, which produces alcohol and also a sweetner. i. Water VI. Selecting Your Flavor a. For home winemaking it’s hard to find the standard flavors outside of a kit and in a kit all basic choices are made for you. . So, the fun of from scratch, there is a world of flavor possibilities awaiting you, any and all fruit is at your finger tips. Melons, apples & berries not just grapes. And not always fruit. Honey, even onions or other vegetables. c. Sort out you fruit. A benefit to making it from scratch is you get to make sure the purity of you fruit. And pick out all the bad parts. VII. Cleanliness. Cleanliness. Cleanliness a. Before you can start you must clean and sanitize your equipment, iodine is a great product but also is bleach in small quantities. b.
Sanitizers that are easily rinsed away are best, cleaner residue will effect fermentation as well as the final flavor. c. There are items just for cleaning wine equipment. But you need to get them at brew shops or online. Some that serves more than one purpose. Like potassium metabisulfite and KMETA. Which are Wine Stabilizers. They help protect color and flavors and stops any leftover yeast from restarting. VIII. Preparing for the Must a. Again cleanliness is the key, just as if you were going to clean the fruit to be eaten, you need to clean the fruit for winemaking. . Determine what method you will us to obtain your Juice. – The old fashion method is to crush or press the fruit either using your feet, or a pressing device. This takes more time and depending on the fruit might yield more or less juice. However, you will get less pulp in the long run. – Using a juicer will juice the fruit completely; it’s faster but produces more pulp which will make the clarification process take longer. * Pre-manufactured juice concentrates and juices also work great and require little to no prep work. IX. Starting the fermentation process. . Now that you have your nice and clean fermentation vessel and your selected fruit juice and your array of chemicals and additives ready. It is time to start the actual process of making it into wine. b. We start by adding the juice, bentonite and water to the carboy and to stir in sugar as needed. During this time is important to make use of the hydrometer to help determine the amount of sugar to add. c. After you have you juice, bentonite, water and sugar all mixed together, and your SG is just where you want it, it is time to add Campden.
What this does is kill the “native” yeast and bacteria that would start a premature and uncontrolled fermentation. d. Next add yeast, yeast nutrient, yeast energizer. Cover and place the fermentation lock, and keep in a warm place. About 72*f-78*f. Now it’s the waiting game. It can take several days before you see and hear the signs of fermentation. But as long as conditions are what they should be the yeast are doing their job of eating the sugar, and producing alcohol. e. Keep a log and check the Must regularly. Checking the SG, the Temp, and if you want, the acidity.
Fermentation can take anywhere from 4 days long to 3 weeks, even longer depending on the starting SG (starting gravity) and the temperature. f. Once you have 2-3 days of consecutive gravity reading it’s time to add more campden and potassium sorbate to the carboy. Swirl around and let sit for another 2-3 days. As it sits you will notice the wine becoming very clear. X. Bottling a. Now use some silicone tubing or pour the wine carefully into whatever container/bottles you want to store the wine in without disturbing the lees. b.
Last is to chill if you wish and enjoy the product of your labors. XI. Conclusion A. Final Review: So today I showed you the basics of making wine. 1. I showed you the basics of the correct materials. 2. I discussed the various juices and the process of fermentation. 3. I showed you how to choose the right yeast and start the process and finish the wine making process. 4. The one thing to always be aware of cleanliness. B. Concluding remarks: “I cook with wine; sometimes I even add it to the food!! ” – W. C. Fields Bibliography: Wine Making. (2011, September 9).
Jack Keller Wine Making Home Page Getting Started. Retrieved September 24, 2011, from http://winemaking. jackkeller. net/starting. asp Garey, T. (1997). The Joy of Home Winemaking. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishing. Retrieved September 24, 2011 from http://www. joyofwine. net/book. htm Crowe, A. (2007) The Wine Maker’s Answer Book. North Adams, MA: Storey Books Berry, C. J. (1994) First Steps In Winemaking. Chicago, IL: G. W. Kent Spaziani, G. , Halloran, E. ,Halloran, E. (2000) The Home Winemaker’s Companion. North Adams, MA: Storey Books