3 RISE OF NATION STATES _____1. The end of the Hundred Years’ War encouraged the growth of centralized government in France for all of the following reasons EXCEPT (A) the nobility had been weakened by the war (B) the monarchy had led the fight against the English (C) the revival of commerce increased the taxable revenues of the bourgeoisie (D) nobles were recruited to serve as government administrators (E) the king was able to keep a strong standing army _____2. Francis I further consolidated centralized power by levying the taille, a tax on: A) all land and property (B) on peasant crops (C) on the Gallic Church’s income (D) on the landholdings of the nobility (E) on imports _____3.
When Henry IV remarked, “Paris is well worth a Mass,” he was referring to (A) his prayers for the fall of the city during his siege of it (B) his expected visit during the Easter season (C) his conversion to Catholicism to gain popular favor (D) his conversion to Calvinism to gain support of the Huguenots (E) his visit with the pope to gain absolution _____4.
The Edict of Nantes, issued by Henry IV in 1598, was one of most significant acts of his reign because of all the following reasons EXCEPT (A) it was one of the first gvernmenta1 guarantees of religious freedom in Europe (B) it granted Huguenots civil and political equality with Catholics (C) it continued the bitter civil war between Catholic and Protestant (D) it brought peace to France (E) it granted Huguenots political control of many towns in France _____5.
Probably the most important step Cardinal Richelieu took to strengthen centralized government and an absolutist monarchy in France was A) to involve France in the Thirty Years’ War (B) to institute the intendant system to oversee the provinces (C) to levy taxes on the clergy and nobility (D) to suppress the musketeers (E) to ban private duels within the realm _____6. When Louis XIV said ‘L’etat, c’est moi,” he was referring to (A) his role as an enlightened despot with the peoples’ best interests in mind (B) his assumption of the role of his own prime minister upon the death of Mazarin (C) his title as Sun King (D) his resistance to the Frondeurs (E) his belief in the divine right of kings ____7. All of the following accurately describe the reign of Louis XIV EXCEPT (A) he dominated the French or Gallican Church (B) he took away the independent authority of the nobility (C) he filled his government with bourgeois advisors (D) he impoverished the national treasury by building the Palace at Versailles (E) the Golden Age of French culture coincided with his reign _____8. Why, if during the reign of Louis French was the “universal language” and French styles were the measure of good taste, was the French army called the Huns of the 17th century? A) It relied primarily on cavalry tactics. (B) It recruited troops from the Russian steppes. (C) Large, modern, and aggressive, it upset the continent’s balance of power. (D) Its top commanders–Turenne, Vauban, and Conde–had trained under Attila. (E) It was the first European army to include integral artillery. _____9. During the 16th and 17th centuries, while France developed absolutism, the English monarchy was checked by (A) a strong peasantry (B) a few powerful and independent noble families (C) a Bill of Rights guaranteeing individual freedoms (D) the Anglican Church E) strong Parliament _____10. That England developed a constitutional government can be explained by all of the following EXCEPT (A) the English kings rejected the divine right theory (B) the Tudor monarchs, lacking a legitimate claim to the throne, had to cooperate with Parliament (C) the English gentry blurred the sharp class distinctions between the nobility and middle classes that existed elsewhere in Europe (D) revolution strengthened the role of Parliament (E) a tradition of individual rights served as a basis for constitutionalism _____11.
That the Anglican Church broke from Rome before altering Roman Catholic dogma indicates that: (A) Henry started the English Reformation because he couldn’t get a divorce sanctioned by the pope (B) Henry’s lust for Anne Boleyn motivated him to reject his devout Catholicism (C) because Henry was eager to have a male heir, he urged Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy (D) Thomas Cranmer issued the divorce that precipitated the Reformation in return for his appointment as Archbishop of Canterbury (E) many factors, including resentment of papal abuses, contributed to the English Reformation ____12. Which of the following was NOT a significant accomplishment during the reign of Elizabeth I? (A) The Thirty-Nine Articles completed the English Reformation (B) Her foreign policy encouraged the independence of the Netherlands, a commercial and colonial rival of Spain. (C) She weakened the power of Spain, bastion of Catholic orthodoxy. (D) She satisfied the Puritans who had criticized the Anglican lithurgy as too close to Catholicism. (E) She encouraged nationalism and the development of a unique culture. _____13. Probably the most significant long-term result of the Puritan Revolution (1643-1660) was A) the restoration of the Stuarts to the throne (B) the issuance of the Petition of Right (C) the increased authority of Parliament (D) the vindication of the divine right of the monarchy (E) the recognition of Calvinism as England’s official religion _____14. Which of the following is NOT a provision of the Declaration of Rights, 1689? (A) Only Parliament can levy taxes. (B) The king may maintain a standing army without the consent of Parliament. (C) All laws must be made with the consent of Parliament. (D) The right of trial by jury is guaranteed. E) Due process of law is guaranteed. _____15. William and Mary’s ascension to the English throne in 1689 (A) restricted the right of Parliament to raise taxes (B) nullified the Declaration of Rights (C) was founded on the divine-right theory (D) indicated the supremacy of Parliament E) restored the Tudor dynasty _____16. Which of the following is NOT true of the ‘Glorious Revolution” of 1689? (A) It established, once and for all, the right of Parliament to levy taxes. (B) It established that the monarchy and Parliament ruled England together. C) It reflected the theories of government of Thomas Hobbes, (D) It was supported by the theories of John Locke. (E) It marked the supremacy of constitutionalism in England. _____17. An important accomplishment of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713-1714) was (A) that it allowed a Bourbon monarch to rule both Spain and France (B) it established a French empire in North America (C) it set up an independent and unified Netherlands (D) it ousted the Austrians from Italy (E) it helped restore the balance of power on the continent _____18. The Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day in 1572: A) marked the renewal of religious civil war in France (B) resulted in the slaughter of Catholic leaders (C) marked the end of Protestantism in France (D) restored religious toleration in France (E) was perpetrated by Huguenot mobs _____19. During the 16th century, which dynasts’ ruled a dominion that stretched from the Atlantic to Eastern Europe, from the Baltic to the Mediterranean? (A) Valois (B) Hohenzollern (C) Bourbon (D) Tudor (E) Hapsburg _____20. All of the following are accurate depictions of the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) EXCEPT (A) it was fought mostly in Germany (B) it involved the major states of Europe C) it was a religious struggle between Protestants and Catholics (D) it was a political struggle between the German Princes and the Holy Roman Empire (E) it allied the French with the Austrian Hapsburgs _____21. Choose the correct chronology. (A) Peace of Augsburg, Thirty Years’ War, Peace of Westphalia (B) Thirty Years’ War, The Reign of Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor, Peace of Westphalia (C) Ministry of Cardinal Richelieu. Diet of Worms, Thirty Years’ War. (D) Reign of Louis XIV, Council of Trent, regency of Mazarin (E) Regency of Mazarin, Treaty of Utrecht, Thirty Years’ War ____22. Philip II of Spain (1556-1598) (A) championed religious toleration of Spanish Jews and Moslems (B) granted independence to the Spanish Netherlands (C) abolished the Alcabala, a 10 percent tax on all sales that inhibited commerce (D) dedicated his reign to establishing Catholic orthodoxy (E) was defeated by the Turks at Lepanto _____23. The 17th century witnessed the rise in Central and Eastern Europe of two states: A) Austria and Prussia B) Poland and Austria C) Prussia and Russia D) Poland and Prussia E) Russia and Poland _____24.
That Prussia has been called “a state built around an army,” meaning that (A) the kings were recruited from the High Command (B) in a nation of separate states, the army was a unifying force (C) the Junkers were militarists (D) the army ruled the monarchy (E) universal conscription was the rule [pic] _____25. The above map shows acquisitions of Peter the Great from 1682 to 1715. The territories were gained from (A) Poland, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire (B) Prussia, Austria, and Poland (C) Poland, Prussia, and the Ottoman Empire (D) Sweden, the Ottoman Empire, and Austria E) Prussia, Poland, Sweden _____26. Which of the following explorers, sailing under the flag of Portugal, reached the west coast of India in 1498 after rounding the Cape of Good Hope and crossing the Indian Ocean? (A) John Cabot (B) Vasco da Gama (C) Bartolomeu Dias (D) Amerigo Vespucci (E) Ferdinand Magellan _____27. Which of the following was an important consequence of the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689? (A) Limits were put on the power of the English monarchy. (B) The franchise was expanded to members of the lower classes. (C) French influence in England was expanded. D) Roman Catholicism was reintroduced into England. (E) England gained control of Spanish colonial possessions in the New World. [pic] _____28. The Russian woodcut above (about 1698) symbolizes Peter the Great’s (A) victory over the Swedes in the Great Northern War (B) elimination of the Cossacks as a political force within Russia (C) imposition of Western values on the Russian nobility (D) initiation of the partition of Poland (E) struggle with his son, Alexis, for control of Russia _____29. Ferdinand and Isabella supported the expulsion or conversion of Muslims and Jews in Spain because A) Ferdinand and Isabella were hostile to religious faiths other than Christianity (B) Ferdinand and Isabella feared that if they did nothing many Christians would leave Spain C) Spanish Muslims and Jews were believed to hinder the economic development of Spain (D) Spanish Muslims and Jews outnumbered Christians in most large cities in the kingdom (E) Spanish Muslims and Jews were protected by foreign powers hostile to Spain _____30. The leadership of the Dutch revolts (1566-1648) sought all of the following EXCEPT (A) an alliance with the English Catholics B) the end of the Inquisition C) the end of excessive taxation (D) the elimination of the rule of foreign officials (E) an alliance with French Protestants _____31. The long-term effect of the Thirty Years’ War on the German states was to (A) restrict Lutheranism to southern German states (B) initiate a long era of peace and rapid economic recovery (C) encourage unification (D) devastate the German states’ economies (E) increase the power of the Holy Roman Emperor _____32. The system of intendants was established in seventeenth-century France primarily to (A) empower the French nobility (B) implement royal policies locally C) make the peasantry return to the land (D) collect taxes from the towns (E) improve France’s ability to fight foreign wars _____33. The acquisition of which of the following territories during the mid-eighteenth century helped to establish Prussia as a great power? (A) Bohemia (B) Bavaria (C) Brandenburg (D) Silesia (E) Saxony _____34. After Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453, which of the following cities claimed to be the “third Rome”? (A) Moscow (B) Budapest (C) Madrid (D) Geneva (E) Warsaw _____35. Which of the following was an economic policy of Louis XIV’s finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert?
A) Raising money through internal tariffs B) Encouraging international competition through lower tariffs and free-trade policies C) Establishing detailed manufacturing codes to improve the quality of French export goods D) Opening France’s colonies to foreign merchants and trade E) Reducing military spending _____36. In seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Prussia, the Junkers supported the monarchy and served in the army in return for (A) the right to sell their lands (B) control of an independent national parliament (C) toleration of their religious diversity (D) exemption from all taxes E) virtually absolute power over their serfs [pic] _____37. The shaded areas on the map of early eighteenth- century France shown above represent (A) lands controlled by peasants revolting against feudal obligations (B) territorial acquisitions during the reign of Louis XIV (C) land controlled by foreign rulers within the kingdom of France (D) Huguenot strongholds that still existed after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (E) former Spanish territories on the border of France _____38. King Louis XIV of France provides perhaps the best example of the form of government known as (A) despotism. B) absolutism (C) constitutional monarchy. (D) fascism. (E) representative democracy. _____39. The Glorious Revolution (1688-1689) was significant because (A) William and Mary led a successful revolt among the English peasants. (B) it reinstated the idea of the divine right of kings. (C) the Parliament was suppressed by royal authority. (D) of the excessive violence necessary to succeed in its attempt to overthrow the king. (E) the idea of divine right was destroyed, and one monarch was replaced by another with minimal bloodshed. _____40. The phrase “I am the state” best characterizes the reign of (A) William and Mary B) Louis XIV (C) Victor Emmanuel III (D) Otto von Bismarck (E) Helmut Kohl _____41. The English Star Chamber was (A) the first astronomer’s observatory of the Scientific Revolution (B) a court designed to end the influence of powerful nobles on the English courts (C) a room for the torture of Protestants under the control of Bloody Mary Tudor (D) the room designated for the trial of those suspected of witchcraft (E) established to increase the power of the English nobility. _____42. The Peace of Utrecht (1713-1714) (A) established the dominance of France after the War of the Spanish Succession. B) laid the foundations for the French dominance of Europe during the eighteenth century. (C) established a balance of power in Europe and ended French dominance. (D) established Catholicism as the one true religion in the Nether lands. (E) greatly reduced the holdings of Great Britain in North America. _____43. In the mid-eighteenth century; the leading banking center of Europe was (A) Florence. (B) Milan. (C) Amsterdam. (D) Vienna. (E) Prague. _____44. The family that ruled Russia from the 1600s until 1917 was the (A) Muscovites. (B) Hohenzollerns. (C) Romanovs. (D) Brezhnevs. (E) Habsburgs. ____45. The Hohenzollerns were (A) representatives in the Reichstag. (B) representatives in the duma. (C) rulers of Prussia known for their social fairness and economic freedoms. (D) rulers of Prussia known for their weak military and poor administration. (E) rulers of Prussia characterized by military strength and discipline. _____46. All of the following were reforms of Peter the Great EXCEPT (A) secularization of the Russian church. (B) replacement of the government ministers with bureaus to more effectively manage taxes and economic affairs. (C) establishment of new industries in Russia. D) the elimination of all Western ideas and influences in Russia. (E) the subordination of the boyars. _____47. The English Game Laws were examples of (A) legislation designed to reduce the economic burden of the peasantry. (B) laws that enabled Parliament to produce revenue by charging the peasants for hunting licenses. (C) legislation that banned medieval tournaments. (D) legislation that allowed hunting on the king’s land only in order to feed families and not for profit. (E) class legislation that benefited only the gentry. _____48. The last great outbreak of which of the following diseases took place in France in 1720? A) Smallpox (B) Dysentery (C) Bubonic plague (D) Influenza (E) Typhus _____49. The revolt in the Netherlands was largely inspired by (A) an economy that was mired in recession. (B) English support for the Dutch rebels. (C) strict language laws imposed by the Spanish that blocked the use of Dutch for official correspondence. (D) the failure of the Netherlands and Spain to agree on how best to use the wealth created from the vast Spanish overseas empire. (E) economic, political, and religious tensions in the relations between the Netherlands and Spain. _____50.
James I agreed to a new translation of the Bible in his one concession to the (A) Catholics. (B) Puritans. (C) Levellers. (D) House of Commons. (E) Arminians. _____51. The majority of victims of the European witch craze were (A) Protestants. (B) children. (C) women. (D) Catholics. (E) men. _____52. Sweden emerged as a powerful European nation in the seventeenth and early eighteenth century until (A) economic and population decline forced the Swedes to implement a more realistic policy concerning foreign conquest. (B) their defeat by the Russians at the Battle of Polotova. C) the Swedish nobility demanded that their monarchs focus on domestic affairs. (D) the Swedish peasantry refused to either serve in the military or pay the high taxes that were necessary owing to constant warfare. (E) their defeat by the Prussians at the Battle of Narva. _____53. The Restoration of Charles II to the throne in1660 indicates that many Englishmen (A) hoped that Calvinism would remain a viable part of English religious life. (B) were unsympathetic to the ideas of John Locke. (C) had never chosen sides in the struggle between king and parliament. (D) had a deep affection for the Stuart dynasty. E) were tired of what they perceived to be the anarchism of the English Republic. _____54. During the English Revolution the Levellers advocated the idea that (A) all private property should be abolished. (B) the economic playing field needed to be leveled to allow for greater opportunities for the poor. (C) the monarchy had to be restored. (D) all men should have the vote regardless of whether they own property. (E) there was a contract between the government and the people. _____55. Spanish decline by the end of the seventeenth century was primarily caused by (A) religious zealotry. B) royal incompetence. (C) too many foreign military commitments. (D) Ottoman aggression in the Mediterranean. (E) a lack of adequate revenue. _____56. Louis XIV built his great palace of Versailles for all of the following reasons EXCEPT (A) to control the aristocracy. (B) to show on a grand scale the wealth and power of the French monarchy. (C) to rule outside the confines of Paris. (D) to make it a center of French culture. (E) to allow for better communications with his people. _____57. The loss of significant colonial possessions in the Seven Years War played a role in France’s decision to A) impose a mercantilistic system on its remaining colonies. (B) aid the American colonies in their struggle with the British. (C) focus its attention on continental affairs. (D) ally itself with the Austrians to counter the British. (E) join with Prussia and Russia in an anti-British alliance. _____58. The appointment of Lord Bute in 1761 as chief minister to George III (A) solidified George’s hold over the House of Commons. (B) seemed to violate the idea that the king should select ministers who had a power base in parliament. (C) came when the king was suffering from a bout of insanity. D) directly caused the American Revolution. (E) was quickly followed by political stability throughout the following decade. _____59. The expansion of Austrian Habsburg lands in the late seventeenth century resulted primarily from (A) victories over the Prussians. (B) victories over the Ottoman Turks (C) a series of advantageous treaties. (D) a political vacuum in France. (E) the support of England. _____60. Tsar Peter the Great of Russia forced his nobles to shave their beards because he wanted (A) to be the only one in Russia with facial hair. (B) to tax them for shaving implements. C) his nobles to be prepared for war. (D) them to look like nobles in Western Europe. (E) to prepare them for a more modern constitutional monarchy. _____61. The diet of the average European in 1600 was primarily made up of (A) vegetables. (B) meat. (C) dairy. (D) grains. (E) legumes. _____62. Prussian power in the eighteenth century was primarily based on its (A) strong army. (B) geographic location. (C) well-trained diplomatic corps. (D) military alliance with Great Britain. (E) economic might. There reigneth all abuse, carnal liberty, enormity, sin and Babylonical confusion.
Take away kings, princes, rulers, magistrates, judges, and such estates of God’s order, no man shall sleep in his own house or bed unkilled, no man shall keep his wife, children or possessions in quietness, all things shall be common; and there needs must follow all mischief and utter destruction both of souls, good and commonwealth. _____63. This homily, read from a pulpit in Elizabethan England, was primarily an attempt to convince people to (A) attend the services of the Church of England. (B) accept the social hierarchy. (C) accept Elizabeth as their Queen. (D) challenge the status quo. E) guard their family and property. _____64. Carnival was an important social outlet in Early Modern Europe because (A) it liberated people, if only for a short time, from hierarchical society. (B) it was critical to economic growth. (C) it brought religious fervor to a frenzy. (D) it lessened tensions between Catholics and Protestants. (E) it was the only time during the year that townspeople didn’t have to work. _____65. The Thirty Years War resulted from all of the following EXCEPT (A) the Counter-Reformation. (B) the growing power of the Habsburgs. (C) Lutheran dissatisfaction with the Peace of Augburg. D) religious conflict in Bohemia. (E) the expansion of Calvinism in the Holy Roman Empire. _____66. The “Diggers,” a group that emerged during the English Revolution, believed that (A) the monarchy must be based on popular support. (B) England needed to become a theocracy. (C) enclosure laws needed to be enforced. (D) private ownership of land should be abolished. (E) property belonging to supporters of Charles I should be redistributed to the landless. _____67. Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army differed from the Cavalier forces under Charles I by (A) its emphasis on cavalry. (B) deemphasizing the role of religion. C) its recruitment of continental mercenaries. (D) providing regular pay for soldiers and for paying for supplies taken from farmers. (E) remaining on the defensive. _____68. In France in the seventeenth century “nobles of the sword” differed from “nobles of the robe” in that the former were (A) wealthier. (B) part of the old traditional landed nobility dating back to the Middle Ages. (C) given special privileges in the Estates General. (D) allowed to maintain manorial courts on their estates. (E) banned from engaging in commerce. _____69. The Holy Roman Emperor was a weak title because A) it was an elected monarchy. (B) the Austrian Habsburgs controlled the throne. (C) it was selected by the papacy. (D) France was the power behind the throne. (E) the religious authority of the Emperor was superior to the political. _____70. The time when Parliament ensured that no monarch would ever rule again without Parliament’s assistance and guidance was (A) the Supremacy Act. (B) the Long. Parliament. (C) the Short Parliament. (D) the Great Charter. (E) the Glorious Revolution. _____71. Although Cardinal Richelieu and France were both Catholic, Richelieu supported Protestants elsewhere A) because he secretly had converted to Protestantism. (B) because he felt sympathy for the Protestants who had suffered at the hands of Catholics. (C) because he tried to achieve a favorable balance of trade by doing business with Protestants. (D) because he conspired with foreign Protestants to overthrow Louis XIII. (E) because he pursued an anti-Habsburg foreign policy. _____72. Tsar Peter the Great of Russia forced his nobles to shave their beards because he wanted (A) to be the only one in Russia with facial hair. (B) to tax them for shaving implements. (C) his nobles to be prepared for war. D) them to look like nobles in Western Europe. (E) to prepare them for a more modern constitutional monarchy. _____73. At the end of the French Wars of Religion, Henry IV converted from Calvinism to Catholicism because he (A) was threatened with death unless he converted. (B) had genuine differences with Calvinist teachings. (C) wanted to gain control over Paris. (D) had undergone a genuine religious conversion. (E) hoped to gain the support of Catholic Spain. _____74. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes, originally intended to be a political and religious move, eventually turned out to be a military blunder because A) the Catholics rose up against the French government. (B) the Huguenots rose up against the French government. (C) many of the exiled Huguenots joined other militaries and eventually fought against France. (D) England came to the defense of the Huguenots. (E) Spain attacked the French fleet that carried the Huguenots away from France. _____75. In the late seventeenth century, which of the following countries led continental Europe in shipbuilding, navigation, and commerce and banking? (A) France (B) Russia (C) The Netherlands (D) Denmark (E) Spain _____76. Henry IV said, “Paris is worth a mass,” referring to A) his conversion from Catholicism to Protestantism. (B) his conversion from Protestantism. (C) the issuance of the Edict of Nantes. (D) his revocation of the Edict of Nantes. (E) his baptism at the Notre Dame cathedral in Paris. _____77. All of the following were invented in Western Europe during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries EXCEPT (A) firearms (B) movable printing type (C) the compound microscope (D) the compass (E) the flying shuttle _____78. “It was an important confederation of commercial towns in northern Germany with its own laws, diplomats, and flags.
Its membership of merchants earned large profits shipping fish, timber, and other resources to areas to the west and to the south. Prosperity declined, however, when trade routes shifted from the Baltic to the Atlantic after 1500. ” The description above refers to the (A) Confederation of the Rhine (B) Hanseatic League (C) Merchants of the Staple (D) Holy Roman Empire (E) Schmalkaldic League _____79. During the reign of Elizabeth I, England’s main enemy was (A) France. (B) Spain. (C) Germany. (D) Portugal. (E) Scotland. _____80. Which of the following was a primary result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688? A) The establishment of universal male suffrage (B) The restoration of Roman Catholicism to both England and Scotland (C) The limitation of monarchical power (D) The execution of Charles I (E) The triumph of Puritanism _____81. In 1500 the two most powerful autocracies in Eastern Europe were (A) Muscovy and the Ottoman Empire (B) the Ottoman and the Byzantine empires (C) the Byzantine Empire and Poland-Lithuania (D) Poland-Lithuania and Hungary (E) Hungary and Kievan Russia _____82. The main reason why Louis XIV (1643-1715) built his palace at Versailles was to (A) tighten his control over the nobility B) strengthen ties with the Huguenots (C) move the king’s residence nearer to the center of the country (D) provide thousands of jobs (E) absorb the excess revenue produced by mercantilist tax policies _____83. In the second half of the seventeenth century, which of the following countries dominated European culture, politics, and diplomacy? (A) England (B) The Netherlands (C) Russia (D) France (E) Prussia _____84. Which of the following best characterizes the Western European economy, as a whole, in the sixteenth century? (A) Widespread unemployment (B) Declining trade and commerce (C) Technological breakthroughs in production D) Unrestricted trade among nations (E) Spiraling inflation _____85. After the defeat of King Charles I in the English Civil War and his execution in 1649, England was governed for a decade by (A) a democratic republic with universal suffrage (B) a commonwealth led by Oliver Cromwell and his son (C) a constitutional monarchy under King James II (D) the king of Scotland (E) a parliamentary council dominated by egalitarians _____86. The French monarchy in the seventeenth century sought to expand France’s borders to its “natural frontiers” by gaining control of A) Schleswig-Holstein B) Milan C) Alsace D) Spain E) Tuscany _____87.
In the first half of the seventeenth century, the Austrian Hapsburgs subdued revolt and centralized control in their territories by doing which of the following? (A) Emancipating the peasantry and encouraging agricultural development (B) Allying with the urban middle classes and encouraging commercial development (C) Establishing a national church headed by the Hapsburg emperor and redistributing former church properties (D) Creating a customs union to promote trade and acquiring new territories to supply merchants with raw materials (E) Waging warfare against rebel groups and supporting the Catholic Reformation ____88. Which of the following was a major result of the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)? (A) The long-term strengthening of the Holy Roman Emperor’s authority (B) The banning of Calvinism in the German states (C) The establishment of strong Russian influence in the northern German states (D) The loss of as much as one-third of the German-speaking population through war, plague, and starvation (E) The encouragement of rapid economic development in many German-speaking cities [pic] _____89. The map above of eighteenth-century Russia suggests which of the following about Russian territory between 1689 and 1796? A) The Ottoman Empire annexed the Crimea. (B) Peter the Great added more territory to Russia than did Catherine the Great. (C) Most Russian expansion took place in the east. (D) Russia ceded territory to Poland in the late eighteenth century. (E) Russia acquired navigable seaports in both the north and the south. [pic] _____90. The Pieter Brueghel painting (circa 1569) shown above depicts the massacre of villagers in (A) the Netherlands by Spanish troops (B) Russia by Ottoman troops (C) Spain by English troops (D) France by Swedish troops E) Hungary by Austrian troops _____91. Under Oliver Cromwell, the government of England most closely resembled (A) a constitutional monarchy. (B) an absolute monarchy. (C) a democracy. (D) an oligarchy. (E) a military dictatorship. [pic] _____92. This statue of Peter the Great is most likely intended (A) to show his great military prowess. (B) to show his enormous physical stature. (C) to intimidate visitors. (D) to symbolize his greatness and his leadership of Russia in a new direction. (E) to commemorate his love of horses. [pic] _____93.
The huge increase in Russia’s population during the eighteenth century can be attributed to natural population increases and (A) the agricultural revolution. (B) the industrial revolution. (C) the use of midwives in childbirth. (D) territorial expansion. (E) the reduction in the number of men who died in wars. [pic] _____94. This illustration most likely depicts (A) the destructive power of, witches. (B) the devastating results of total war. (C) the aftermath of the Great Lisbon Earthquake.. (D) the effects of nuclear warfare. (E) the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl. pic] _____95 . The building in the picture was most likely constructed to (A) honor the gods represented by the statues around the fountain. (B) intimidate and impress foreign dignitaries. (C) provide safety and protection. (D) recreate classical architecture. (E) serve as a public works project that would provide jobs for the unemployed. _____96. Elections for the British House of Commons in the eighteenth century were primarily limited to those who (A) had significant wealth in either land or other forms of property. (B) were male and older than twenty-one. C) paid taxes equivalent to three days of wages. (D) could prove that in Elizabethan times their ancestors voted. (E) owned significant amounts of land. _____97. Poland disappeared as an independent nation in the eighteenth century due to all of the following reasons EXCEPT (A) Russian, Prussian, and Austrian annexations of Polish territories. (B) the Polish nobility reduced the monarchy to a powerless institution. (C) France refused to intervene on behalf of the Poles. (D) the nation was vulnerable due to its exposed lands without natural borders. E) the Catholic Church was unsympathetic to Polish statehood. [pic] _____98. According to the graph above, which class in sixteenth-century England benefited most from the trends shown? A) Landowners B) Landless laborers C) Household servants D) Merchants (E) Small-scale artisans _____99. In eighteenth-century Europe, the most important imperial rivalries existed among which three of the following? A) Russia, France, and Great Britain B) The German states, the Italian states, and Great Britain C) The German states, the Italian states, and France
D) The German states, the Italian states, and Spain E) Spain, France, and Great Britain [pic] _____100. The shaded areas on the map above represent which of the following? (A) Dynastic lands of the Hapsburgs in the sixteenth century (B) Participants in the Thirty Years’ War in the seventeenth century (C) Protestant regions in the eighteenth century (D) Members of the Holy Alliance in the nineteenth century (E) Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the twentieth century pic] _____101. All of the following statements about Europe’s population in the eighteenth century can be inferred from the graph above EXCEPT: (A) For most of the century, France had the largest population of any European power. (B) The population of Eastern Europe outstripped that of Western Europe in size. (C) Russia experienced the largest increase in rate of population growth. (D) The population of the British Isles grew throughout the century. (E) Rates of population growth increased after 1750.