This essay sample essay on Capital Budgeting Questions And Answers offers an extensive list of facts and arguments related to it. The essay’s introduction, body paragraphs and the conclusion are provided below.
1. Why should the required rate of return for a capital budgeting problem be project specific? Doesn’t the firm just have to satisfy an overall cost-of-capital requirement?
Answer: The required rate of return for a capital budgeting problem is project specific because the firm is viewed as a portfolio of projects owned by the shareholders. It is the shareholder’s perspective that matters, and it is their opportunity cost that gives the required rate of return for a project. The question that the managers should ask is the following: If the shareholders were to receive the cash flows from the project directly, what risk would they associate with the cash flows? Notice that this immediately suggests that the required rate of return should be project specific and that it should reflect the market risk that continues to be present when an investor holds a large, well-diversified portfolio.
International Capital Budgeting Ppt
2. What is the conceptual foundation of the flow-to-equity approach to capital budgeting?
Answer: In the flow-to-equity approach to capital budgeting, the after-tax cash flows that are available to be paid to equity holders are discounted at the levered equity required rate of return. Hence, the interest costs of debt are subtracted from the earnings of the firm in considering the amount of tax the firm will owe, and the interest payments that the firm must make are taken out of the residual free cash flow. The discount rate for these levered equity flows therefore must reflect the fact that equity is a residual claimant on the cash flows of the firm.
3. What is the weighted average cost of capital?
Answer: The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) approach to capital budgeting involves forecasting the all-equity free cash flows of the firm and then finding the value of the levered firm by discounting the all-equity free cash flows at an appropriate WACC. It is a one-step procedure for finding the value of the operating assets plus the value of the interest tax shields. The weighted average cost of capital is the weighted sum of the after-tax required rate of return on the firm’s debt and the required rate of return on the firm’s levered equity. The weight for the after-tax rate of return on the firm’s debt is the ratio of the market value of the debt to the market value of total assets. The weight for the rate of return on the firm’s levered equity is the ratio of the market value of the equity to the market value of total assets. Once the total value of the firm is found, the market value of equity is found by subtracting the market value of the debt from the value of the levered firm.
4. Should a firm ever accept a project that has a negative NPV when discounted at the weighted average cost of capital?
Answer: One reason we like the adjusted net present value approach to valuation is that it specifies all of the possible sources of value for a project. The WACC approach works well for projects that will support a certain percentage of leverage and that have no other associated features, such as interest subsidies or growth options that might add value to the project. If the only cash flows from the project are the ones that are being discounted and there are no other sources of value, other than the interest tax shields that are included in the WACC analysis, then the WACC approach finds the market value of the levered project. If this is negative, the project should be rejected.
5. Can you do capital budgeting for a foreign project using a domestic currency discount rate? Explain your answer.
Answer: The answer to the question is yes; you certainly can do capital budgeting for a foreign project using a domestic currency discount rate. You just have to be careful to match the cash flows with the discount rate. One fundamental principle of capital budgeting is that the discount rate should reflect the currency of denomination of the expected cash flows that are being discounted. If a foreign project is providing expected future foreign currency cash flows, these can be discounted to the present using a foreign currency discount rate that reflects the riskiness of the project. The domestic currency present value of this foreign currency present value can then be determined by converting from the present value of foreign currency into the present value of domestic currency using the spot exchange rate. Alternatively, one can generate expected future domestic currency cash flows in future years by converting expected future foreign currency cash flows into expected future domestic currency cash flows using expected future spot exchange rates. These expected future domestic currency cash flows should then be discounted to the present using an appropriate domestic currency discount rate.
6. Why might it be important to use period-specific discount rates when doing capital budgeting?
Answer: We know that risk free spot interest rates are the appropriate discount rates for cash flows from risk free pure discount bonds. If the term structure of spot interest rates is not flat, that is, if it is upward sloping or downward sloping, using the same discount factor for all the cash flows of a risky project will not be correct. If the term structure is upward sloping, and you use the single long-term rate as the base for your risk adjusted discount rate, you will needlessly penalize the earlier cash flows from the project because short-term spot interest rates are lower than long-term spot interest rates. Conversely, if the term structure is downward sloping, and you use the single long-term rate as the base for your risk adjusted discount rate, you will be incorrectly enhancing the value of the earlier cash flows from the project because the short-term interest rates that should be used to discount near-term cash flows are higher than the long-term rates that should be used to discount longer-term cash flows.
7. Why is it necessary to consider forecasts of real currency appreciation and depreciation when doing an international capital budgeting analysis?
Answer: The most important reason to consider forecasts of real currency appreciation or depreciation is that it is likely that a change in the real exchange rate will affect the cash flows of the project. Remember that a real depreciation of the domestic currency makes domestic exporters more profitable and domestic importers less profitable. Also, real appreciations typically reverse themselves somewhat slowly, so that knowledge of the current situation is necessary to know whether the future expected changes in the real exchange rate are going to enhance or detract from the cash flows of the project. Finally, if forecasts of nominal exchange rates are being made with uncovered interest rate parity, these will be somewhat different than forecasts based on relative purchasing power parity. If the market thinks that there will be a real appreciation or depreciation in the future, forecasts of nominal exchange rates based on relative purchasing power parity will not be correct.
8. What is the rate of return on invested capital? How is it calculated?
Answer: The rate of return on invested capital is the free cash flow of the firm divided by the firm’s total assets. If the firm is earning its weighted average cost of capital, the rate of return on invested capital should equal its WACC. If we think of an investment that the firm is making, the rate of return on capital expenditure is the incremental free cash flow divided by the CAPX. Here again, it is important for the firm to do investments in which the rate of return on invested capital equals or exceeded the WACC – otherwise the firm is destroying value.
9. If you borrow a foreign currency, what interest deduction would you receive on your taxes?
Answer: When you borrow in a foreign currency, you get an interest deduction for the domestic currency value of the foreign interest that you pay.
10. If you borrow a foreign currency, are there any capital gains taxes to worry about?
Answer: If you borrow in a foreign currency, there are capital gains taxes to worry about. If the domestic currency has appreciated relative to the foreign currency between when the initial borrowing took place and when the principal is being repaid, it takes less of the domestic currency to repay the foreign currency principal than the amount of domestic currency that you had access to when you borrowed. Thus, you are repaying less than you borrowed and that capital gain is income to you and is taxed by the fiscal authorities. Conversely, if the domestic currency has depreciated relative to the foreign currency between when the initial borrowing took place and when the principal is being repaid, it takes more of the domestic currency to repay the foreign currency principal than the amount of domestic currency that you had access to when you borrowed. Thus, you are repaying more than you borrowed and that capital loss is deductible for tax purposes.
11. Why might a manager accept a high-variance, low-value project instead of a low-variance, high-value project?
Answer: Shareholders only gain in good states of the world, and if the variance of the firm is higher, they gain more in those good states. Holders of debt get paid their full amount in good states of the world, and they get the value of the firm in the bad states of the world. By accepting a high variance project, managers may be able to shift some value from bondholders to shareholders. In such a situation the manager is said to have engaged in asset substitution.
12. Why would a manager not accept a positive net present value project?
Answer: The value of the project accrues to the firm as a whole. Thus, if the firm has risky debt in its capital structure, some of the value of the project will accrue to the bondholders, and the remainder will accrue to the equity holders. The increase in the value of equity may be less than the equity holders must contribute to finance the investment in the project. Hence, a manager acting in the interests of the shareholders would forego such a project. This situation is referred to as an underinvestment problem.