The following academic paper highlights the up-to-date issues and questions of Politeness Essay. This sample provides just some ideas on how this topic can be analyzed and discussed.
Linguistically, politeness is a form of pragmatic, ‘the study of how interlocutors use their own knowledge of a language to convey and interpret meaning’ (Bloomer, Griffith and Morrison: 468), this enforces that littleness is a form of language that previous knowledge and external influences that can affect our interpretation of what was spoken to the listener.
There are many factions of politeness however, the main focus is the social interactions that may or may not be considered polite.
Sociolinguistics such as Penelope Brown and Stephenson C. Elevations are the most creditable figures In studying politeness, ‘Politeness: some universals in language usage’ what this particular text introduces is that politeness is versatile and differs from culture, to culture. The study of politeness enables the understanding of the relationship between speaker and listener. Stud’s such as J Holmes’ Women.
Men and Politeness’ also represent how politeness differs between genders and what is expected from women and men in society.
Academic texts such as ‘introducing language in use’ and ‘politeness in language’ discuss the variations of politeness and how politeness operates, such as what is conceived polite and impolite. What may or may not be considered polite differs on the individual as Bloomer, Griffith and Merinos state “it depends! More specifically, it would depend on who you are asking’ (Bloomer, Griffith and Morrison: 109). Based on relationships and individual interpretation of politeness, what one may consider extremely rude one may think nothing of it, due to the listener’s relationship to the speaker, it could even be a joke ‘Get me a coke.
(Bloomer, Griffith and Morrison: 1 08), may be considered neither polite nor impolite to one but impolite to another. Due to politeness being pragmatic any examples of ‘politeness’ can’t be analyzed correctly due to not knowing the external actors. Therefore, it also suggests that linguistic choice is a main factor when being polite or impolite, as this varies from person to person. Politeness is suggested to be more complex than what is initially perceived such as ‘please and thank you’, Brown and Elevations (1978, 1 987) suggest this ‘people have certain needs’ (Bloomer, Griffith and Morrison: 1 12) these are called faces.
Positive face, is individual’s public image or personality that one desires to be accepted and approved of. Negative face is our rights and freedom of action. This is a constant struggle to ‘keep face’ as these faces are continuously threatened in everyday conversation. These threats are normally made by the speaker as they challenge the hearer’s self-image or their freedom Of action. Acts that threaten the hearers face would be questions such as order and requests, suggestions and advice, reminders and threats (warnings and dares) this removes the hearer’s freedom of action therefore it is a threat.
Hearer’s can gain their face back by complaining, or refusing to do what the) are requested to do. Politeness however, makes this hard to refuse as it signed to make individuals do as the speaker says or they will appear impolite a break social rules. Threats the positive face is similar however, TFH speaker may criticize, disapprove, disagree, bringing bad news or boasting about the speaker’s news etc. They can gain their face back by apologizing, accepting and complimenting and so on. However, by regaining hearer’s positive and negative face they are now threatening the speaker’s positive and negative face.
When applying o politeness, it is understood that politeness is a ‘linguistic behavior signaling that the speaker wants/needs/ appreciates… The same things as the hearer’ (Bloomer Griffith Morrison: 1 If Politeness represents. ‘positive concern’ (Holmes: 1995). This then suggests that a common ground is to be met as politeness doesn’t intend to threaten faces. Brown and Elevations (1978, 1 987) are the most famous figures in linguistic analysis of politeness as they suggested the theory of negative and positive face. However, the focus will be on the universal concept of politeness. International systematic are based largely on universal principals’ (Brown and Elevations:283) this suggests that hearer and speaker hurry is similar throughout different cultures, there is always a one and once conversation and that has one and the other however, this ‘differs systematically across cultures, and within cultures sub-subcultures'( Brown c Elevations:283) the idea of variation of politeness suggests society is built up multiple ‘building blocks’ where complex social relations are constructed When studying the basics of Politeness, it is assumed that in society this system works on both genders equally however, our language differs in society. However, J Holmes’ ‘Women, men and politeness’ (1995) suggests otherwise where it’s stated that ‘yes think women are more polite than mere (Holmes: 1). It isn’t surprising when it has been proven multiple times before that men and women’s speech differ in language. Such as ‘girls are verbally more precious than boys’ ( Men, Women and Politeness, 1995:1 , Chambers 1992) and ‘women have more advantage over men… Lunacy, speaking, sentence complexity’ (Men, Women and Politeness, 1995:1, Chambers 1992, 1999) compared to ‘men are likely to stutter and to have reading disabilities’ (Men, Women and Politeness, 1995:1 ,Chambers 1992:200). This obviously allows women to structure complex sentences and articulate bet when using politeness and men, struggling to do so. Socially women tend to talk more, as a means of keeping in touch and developing relationship as most men, use language to convey information. This then suggests that me are concerned with the content of the conversation than the meaning and the feelings behind then that women do due to women’s natural nurturing side.
Politeness in Language (1992) is written by Richard Watts, Cossack Did and Conrad Inline who represent the postmodern approach to politeness They issues the history of politeness, and how the English language has evolved . The meaning of expression and the historicity of the present, the diachronic aspects of politeness. A number of key themes are illustrated from the first section focus on the theoretical and historical dimensions of linguistic politeness. These themes are nicely explored by Watts when he claims that “politeness will always be a slippery, ultimately indefinable quality of interaction which is subject to change through time and across cultural space” (watts:13).
The suggests that the analytical study of modern littleness may differ in time to come therefore research continuously being invalid as it is always differing from person to person and can’t be set on one theory. Text also looks at politeness and its history Conrad Inline suggests, ‘it is not a natural entity, but one which has evolved historically’ (Inline: 73) like language it is a historical construct that has differed over time. As previously mentioned, politeness differs from culture to culture and from area to area it also changes from time to time. Such as asking permission of the father to awry a women was seen as polite and a scandal to be wed without permission. In modern day society it would still be considered polite but not impolite if a man was to ask the father to marry his daughter.
Inline implies that ‘the phenomenon of politeness does not exist’ (Inline: 73) he further argues that they are part of an expression and therefore concept of politeness and is not independent. Inline recognizes that previous studies are subjective as sociolinguistics such as Brown and Elevations, surmise it is universal when they only studied western areas. To conclude: The English language is vibrant with multiplicity and complexities especially in politeness. English language and culture through history have always been highlighted for their etiquette and good manners due to English heritage. Manners, where of the highest importance in English history and a large part Of this remains.