Listening Guide 52: Strayhorn, Take the A Train, by the Duke Ellington Orchestra (recorded 1941)
1. 32-bar song form (A-A-B-A), three choruses
2. piano introduction, syncopated chromatic motive
3. Chorus 1: saxophones present melody
a. call-and-response: saxophones; muted trumpet and trombones
4. Chorus 2: muted trumpet, masterful improvisation, bent notes (shakes), glissandos
5. Chorus 3: unmuted trumpet solo
Coda: two repetitions of A, softer closing with saxophone 6. ostinato

Listening Guide 55: John Williams, Raiders March, from Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
1. A-B-A’ form (March-Trio-March)
2. regular duple meter
3. brass and percussion featured
4. March: disjunct tune, trumpet
a. melody heard four times, growing in intensity
5. Trio: lyrical melody in low strings (Marion’s love theme)

Listening Guide 56: Crumb, Caballito negro (Little Black Horse) (1965)
1. A-B-A form
2. regular pulsations, no sense of meter
3. opening: pounding rhythm, piccolo and percussion
4.disjunt vocal line
5. extended technique: flutter tonguing, glissandos, whispering
6. return of A section: vocalist neighs like a horse

chapter 40
Ragtime, Blues, And Jazz

Scott Joplin (1868-1917), “King of Ragtime”
1. Texas-born composer, pianist
2. son of a former slave
3. at age fourteen, traveled Mississippi Valley: honky-tonks and piano bars
4. 1893 World Exposition in Chicago: gained recognition
5. studied composition at George R. Smith College
6. Maple Leaf Rag, 1899: sold one million copies
7. teacher, composer, performer in New York
8. merged styles, elevated ragtime to serious art
9. awarded Pulitzer Prize posthumously
10. compositions: ballet, two operas, piano rags, piano music, songs

1. influential precursor of jazz
2. African-American piano style
3. syncopated rhythm in right hand, steady accompaniment in left hand

Blues: derived from work songs of Southern blacks
1. harmonic progression: 12 measures long
2. “blue” note: drop in pitch on 3rd, 5th, or 7th scale tone
3. three-line stanza, first two identical

New Orleans jazz
1. fusion of African-American elements: blues, ragtime, spirituals, work songs, shouts
2. improvisatory
3. multiple players, polyphonic texture
a. melody: trumpet and cornet
b. countermelody above: clarinet
c. countermelody below: trombone
4. rhythm section: string bass or tuba, guitar and banjo, or piano and drums
5. 1920s New Orleans musicians traveled throughout the country
6. Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong developed early jazz styles
scat singing: improvised syllables without meanings (vocables)

Billie Holiday (1915-1959)
1. leading female singer in jazz history
2. little formal education
3. 1933 recorded with Benny Goodman
4. featured in prominent big bands
5. 1938 sang in public with a white orchestra
6. alcohol and drug abuse
7. memorable recordings

Big Band or Swing era: 1930s and ’40s
1. Great Depression: opportunities for black musicians
2. Duke Ellington’s big band style
a. black and white audience
b. dance clubs, hotel ballrooms

Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (1899-1974)
1. born in Washington, DC
2. jazz pianist, composer, arranger, band leader
3. major artistic figure of the Harlem Renaissance
4. 1920s, The Washingtonians played in New York jazz clubs, Cotton Club in Harlem
5. 1930s began touring: need for arranged, composed music
6. collaborated with Billy Strayhorn, composer, arranger

Rebellion against big band jazz
1. late 1940s bebop (or bop): word mimics typical two-note phrase
a. Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet
b. Charlie Parker, saxophone
c. Thelonius Monk, piano
2. substyles of bebop: cool jazz, West Coast jazz, hard bop, soul jazz
3. cool jazz
a. laid-back lush harmonies
b. lower volume levels
c. new lyricism
d. Miles Davis
4. 1950s West Coast jazz
a. small group, cool-jazz style
b. mixed timbres, without piano
c. contrapuntal improvisations
d. Dave Brubeck Quartet, Gerry Mulligan Quartet

Latin Influence
1. 1930s and ’40s Latin dance music, mainstream
2. dance rhythms, percussion instruments (conga drum, bongos, cowbells)
3. integral to 1940s bebop style

Other jazz styles
1. third stream music: combination of classical and jazz traditions
a. Modern Jazz Quartet, Wynton Marsalis
2. 1960s avant-garde jazz: free style
a. John Coltrane
3. fusion-hybrid: jazz improvisation with amplified instruments, rhythmic pulse of rock
a. Miles Davis, Jerry Garcia, Gary Burton
4. 1980s Neoclassical style: modern bebop
a. Wynton Marsalis
5. free jazz of 1960s developed into new-age jazz
a. Ornette Coleman, Paul Winter

Musical Theater

Early musicals: outgrowth of operetta (comic opera)
1. romantic plots, comedy, appealing melodies, choruses, dances

Emphasis turned to sophisticated literary sources
1. Show Boat, Kiss Me Kate
2. George Gershwin, Porgy and Bess (1935), African-American folk idioms
3. composer/lyricist teams
a. Rodgers and Hart, Rodgers and Hammerstein: Oklahoma!, The Sound of Music
b. Lerner and Loewe: My Fair Lady

1970s and ’80s: Stephen Sondheim
1. new level of sophistication
2. more serious, dramatic expression
3. fewer musical tunes, symphonic score
4. Sweeney Todd, Into the Woods, Passion

Andrew Lloyd Webber: song and dance combined, dazzling scenic effects
1. Evita, Cats, The Phantom of the Opera, Les Misérables

1. Revivals on Broadway: Chicago, South Pacific
2. Film-based musicals, animated films: Beauty and the Beast, Lion King
3. Shows based on film: The Producers, Wicked, Spamalot

Recent musicals
1. Rent, based on Puccini’s La bohème
2. Aida, Disney Production, based on Verdi’s Aida
3. dance-inspired musical: choreography takes precedence over story
a. Billy Elliot, Stomp
4. “jukebox” musicals: feature popular songs of artist or group
a. Mamma Mia, Jersey Boys

George Gershwin (1898-1937)
1. composer, pianist, grew up in Manhattan
2. worked as song plugger on Tin Pan Alley
3. 1920s wrote first big hit, Swanee
4. 1920s: launched career as composer of concert music
5. 1924: international acclaim, Rhapsody in Blue
6. hit musicals, collaborated with brother, Ira
7. works: film scores, folk opera, songs, concert music
8. union of styles: popular and classical, vernacular and art
9. style: appealing rhythmic vitality, syncopation, blue notes, jazz-style accompaniment, sudden shifts in tonality, declamatory to highly lyrical melodies

Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess
1. falls between opera and musical theater
2. continuous music, recurring themes, united jazz and classical music
3. takes place in Catfish Row, black tenement in Charleston, South Carolina
4. Summertime, Clara sings lullaby to her baby, opening scene
a. evokes African-American spiritual
b. reprised throughout the opera

Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990)
1. Massachusetts-born composer, conductor, educator, pianist, television personality
2. studied composition at Harvard and Curtis Institute
3. at age twenty-five, assistant conductor of New York Philharmonic
a. last-minute nationally broadcast performance: overnight fame
4. at age forty, youngest, and first American-born conductor of New York Philharmonic
5. compositions rooted in tonality, soaring melodies, jazzy rhythms
6. symphonies, choral works, operas, musicals, film score, chamber and instrumental music, solo vocal music

Bernstein’s West Side Story
1. updated Romeo and Juliet story
2. Arthur Laurents, playwright; Stephen Sondheim, lyricist
3. dramatic content, stirring melodies, colorful orchestration, vivacious dance scenes
4. New York City warring street gangs, Sharks and Jets
5. Mambo: Tony meets Maria
6. Tonight: later same day, love duet
Shakespeare’s balcony scene, takes place on fire escape

Chapter 42
Music For Films

Set a mood: reflect emotions of a scene
1. single mood can dominate for an entire film
2. “running counter to the action”: music contradicts the scene
a. Godfather baptism scene: Bach’s organ music
b. Pulp Fiction: graphic violence with light-hearted rock music

Establishing character
1. Titanic: delineated social levels
a. elegant chamber music: upper-deck aristocrats
b. Irish dance music: lower levels

Place and time: instruments suggest time period
Gandhi: sitar, Braveheart: bagpipes

Underscoring and source music
1. underscoring: unseen source, invisible orchestra
2. source music: functions as part of the drama
a. Rear Window, only source music

Musical unity
1. leitmotifs, Jaws two-note motive
2. characters have own themes (leitmotifs), Star Wars

John Williams: Star Wars, Jaws, Indiana Jones films
1. revival of grand symphonic film score
2. unforgettable themes, accessible, neo-Romantic idiom

John Williams (b. 1932)
1. composer, conductor; native of Long Island
2. studied at UCLA, the Julliard School
3. television compositions in 1950s, Gilligan’s Island
4. 1970s and ’80s, nine blockbuster hits
5. classical works: fanfares for the Olympics, President Barack Obama’s inauguration music
6. holds record for most Oscar nominations
7. film scores: Wagnerian ideas, extended chromatic harmony, use of leitmotifs, highly lyrical, memorable tunes
8. films include: Jaws, Star Wars, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Superman, E.T., Home Alone, Jurassic Park, Schindler’s List, Harry Potter films

John Williams’s Raiders March
1. leitmotifs define characters
2. Raiders March: entirety during closing credits

1. Art music composers of film: Aaron Copland, George Gershwin, Leonard Bernstein, Silvestre Revueltas, Sergei Prokofiev, Tan Dun, Philip Glass
2. Specialists of film composition: Max Steiner, Miklós Rózsa, Elmer Bernstein, John Williams

Compositional tendencies
1. principles of Wagner’s music dramas
2. assimilation of popular music
3. search for new sounds

Chapter 43
The Many Voices Of Rock

Multibillion-dollar industry
1. impacts fashion, language, politics, religion
2. influenced classical, jazz, country-western, contemporary global pop musics

Emerged in 1950s
look below

1. African-American rhythm and blues with country western
2. rhythm and blues: dance music genre from1940s, roots in swing jazz
a. performed by African Americans
b. vocal genre: featured solo singer accompanied by small group
c. 12-bar blues, 32-bar pop song form
d. 4/4 meter, emphasis on beats 2 and 4 (backbeats)

3. rock and roll: rhythm and blues that crossed racial lines
a. white singers: Bill Haley, Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis
b. rockabilly: combined “hillbilly” country with rhythm and blues

4. African Americans gain white audience
a. Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, Little Richard
b. new sounds, outrageous look and behavior

5. soul: blend of gospel, pop, rhythm and blues
a. Ray Charles, “father” of soul
b. Sam Cooke, James Brown, Aretha Franklin

6. Motown: first and most successful black-owned record label
a. represented soul music
b. Diana Ross and the Supremes, Smokey Robinson and the Miracles

Mid-1960s new groups revitalized rock and roll
look below

1. The Beatles
a. strong back beat, distinctive vocal sound, high range
b. 1964 appeared on Ed Sullivan Show
c. creative experiments, combined pop songwriting with string quartet, Indian sitar
d. poetic lyrics, complex harmonies, sophisticated recording techniques
e. 1967, concept album: unified thematically

2. The Rolling Stones
a. inspired by American rhythm and blues
b. “bad boys” of rock: lyrics about sexual freedom, drugs, violence

3. California bands
a. Beach Boys: raise levels of studio production
b. Byrds combine folk style with rock: folk rock

4. Listening Activity: The Influence of Bob Dylan
compare settings of Mr. Tambourine Man

5. acid rock (or psychedelic rock)
a. focus on drugs, instrumental improvisations, new sound technologies
b. political and socially radical lyrics
c. Jefferson Airplane, Grateful Dead, Woodstock 1969

6. jam bands and trance music:
inspired by Pink Floyd and Grateful Dead

Art rock (or progressive rock): largely British style
1. large forms, complex harmonies, occasional classical music quotes
2. The Who: first rock opera Tommy
3. Frank Zappa: experimented with rock’s large forms

Jazz influenced rock
1. Santana
a. fused Latin jazz with electric blues rock
b. Latin rock, new style
c. use of Latin and African percussion instruments

1970s and 1980s: fragmentation into musical subgenres
1. West coast rock: relaxed California sound
a. Eagles, Doobie Brothers
2. British heavy metal (influenced by Mahler and Wagner)
a. Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath
3. glam (glitter rock): showy, theatrical style
a. David Bowie, Lou Reed, KISS, Elton John
4. punk rock: rebellious, simple, repetitive, loud, provoking lyrics, shocking behavior
a. The Ramones, Sex Pistols

Other reactions to the 1970s
1. disco: commercial dance music
a. repetitive lyrics, sung in high range, thumping mechanical beat
b. Bee Gees
2. Reggae; Jamaican style, offbeat rhythms, chanted vocals
a. Bob Marley and the Wailers
3. New wave: offshoot of punk rock with synthesizers, alienation, and social consciousness
a. Elvis Costello, Police, Talking Heads

Development of music videos in 1980s
1. MTV premiered 1981
2. principal way to present music to the public

Superstars of the 1980s
Michael Jackson, Bruce Springsteen, Prince, Madonna

1980s groups contributed to social causes
U2 (Irish group): Live Aide and Amnesty International, debt relief, AIDs, global causes

Rap emerged from hip hop, 1970s
1. pre-recorded sounds and beats, MC rhythmically rhymed patter over DJs musical backdrop
a. Run DMC, Public Enemy, Queen Latifah
2. gangsta rap of 1990s: graphic descriptions of inner-city realisms
a. N.W.A., Ice Cube, Snoop Doggy Dogg, Ice-T

Soul and R&B artists: heavily melismatic singing style
Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey

Grunge rock: hybrid of punk and metal
Soundgarden, Nirvana, Pearl Jam

“Alternative” rock late 1990s: breadth of styles
1. Beck: combines hip hop, soul, country
2. Björk: Icelandic style
3. English: Radiohead

Successful women in popular music:
Tori Amos, Fiona Apple, Ani DiFranco, Avril Lavigne, Sleater-Kinney, Dixie Chicks, Missy “Misdemeanor” Elliot, Li’l Kim, Lady Gaga

Reality TV shows and music video games
1. American Idol: creates overnight superstars
2. Guitar Hero, Rock Band, Beatles Rock Band: contribute to longevity of bands

Chapter 44
The New Virtuosity Of The Modern Age

George Crumb (b. 1929)
1. American composer
2. studied at Mason College, University of Illinois, University of Michigan
3. teaching: University of Colorado, State University of New York at Buffalo, University of Pennsylvania
4. Pulitzer Prize 1968, Echoes of Time and the River
5. music: focus on sonorities and timbres, charged with emotion, dramatic, extra-musical content, theatrical concepts
6. works: orchestral music, vocal music, four books of madrigals, chamber music, music for amplified piano

Crumb’s Caballito negro
1. song, from Madrigals, Book II
2. scored for soprano, piccolo, and metallic percussion instruments
3. text: Frederico García Lorca poem
4. Crumb alternated two refrains; image of death
5. ominous words, downward melodic line: meurto (dead), negro (black), frio (cold), cuchillo (white)

Chapter 45
Contemporary Composers Look To World Music

Henry Cowell (1897-1967)
1. foreign scales with Western chords
2. innovations: tone clusters, plucking of piano strings

Experiments with tuning
1. Charles Ives (1874-1954)
a. pianos tuned quarter tone apart
2. Harry Partch (1901-1974)
a. microtonal tuning: scale of 43 microtones
b. original idiophones: adapted Indian and African instruments

John Cage (1912-1992)
1. Los Angeles-born composer, leader in postwar avant-garde
2. student of Henry Cowell
3. interests: rhythm, opposition between music and noise, the role of silence
4. invented the “prepared piano”: effect resembles Javanese gamelan
5. works: orchestral music, works for percussion, prepared piano, electronic music, indeterminate works (chance music)

Cage’s Sonatas and Interludes
1. four groups of four Sonatas, separated by Interludes
2. prepared piano: various materials inserted between the strings
a. nails, bolts, nuts, screws
b.varied effect: nonpitched thump, pitch and timbre altered
c. piano produces percussive effects
3. rhythmic groupings of sound
4. approximates sounds of Javanese gamelan
5. meditative character of East Asian thought

Tradition of Indonesian islands of Java, Bali, and Sunda
1. gamelan orchestra: metallic percussion instruments
2. music passed down through oral tradition
3. ritual ceremonies, and Wayang (shadow-puppet theater)
4. Wayang instruments:
a. metallaphones (tuned metal bars, struck with mallet)
b. gongs, xylophones, drums, voice
5. Wayang: five-note melodic patterns, sléndro tuning (pentatonic)
6. Wayang performances continue for many hours

Impulse toward a world music sound
1. composers: Lou Harrison, Philip Glass, Terry Riley, Steve Reich

Composers draw on Asian heritage
1. Toru Takemitsu (1930-1996), Tan Dun (b. 1957), Bright Sheng (b. 1955)

Bright Sheng (b. 1955)
1. born and raised in Shanghai
2. grew up during 1966 Cultural Revolution
3. studied composition: Shanghai Conservatory; Queens College and Columbia University in United States
4. many awards and commissions, Pulitzer Prize nomination
5. collaborations with cellist Yo-Yo Ma, preserves traditional musical cultures
6. style: integrates Western and Eastern elements
a. Western: emphasis on harmony and counterpoint
b. Eastern: linear sounds
7. music evokes Chinese folk tunes; Chinese instruments
8. works: orchestral music, concertos for Western and Asian instruments, chamber music, operas, other stage works1.

Sheng’s China Dreams
1. four-movement symphonic suite
a. Prelude
b. Fanfare
c. The Stream Flows
d. Last Three Gorges of the Long River
2. orchestra with piano, celesta, diverse percussion
3. nostalgia for China: evokes Chinese folk music
4. Western orchestra

Popular Chinese instruments featured in Western works
1. erhu (two-stringed fiddle), and pipa (lute)
2. Tan Dun film score, concerto for erhu and orchestra, Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000)
3. Bright Sheng, concerto for pipa and orchestra, Nanking! Nanking! A Threnody (2000)

Chapter 46
Technology And Music

Emergence of electronic music
1. musique concrète, France
a. sounds by natural source recorded and manipulated
2. tape music: raw sound components isolated and manipulated
3. Electronische Musik, Germany
a. oscillator: generated waveforms, different timbres; precursor of the synthesizer
b. important composer: Karlheinz Stockhausen, integrated human voice
4. RCA music synthesizer, 1955
a. 1959 version: Columbia-Princeton’s Electronic Music Center
b. size and cost prohibit purchase by other institutions

Commercially available synthesizers
1. 1960s, Robert Moog—Moog synthesizer, analog synthesis
a. Switched-On Bach, 1968 by Walter Carlos: brought fame to electronic music
2. John Chowning’s digital frequency modulation synthesis
a. sold rights to Yamaha
3. 1983 Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
a. standardized communications protocol
4. mid-1980s: digital sampling synthesizers more affordable
a. create realistic sounding instruments

Edgard Varèse (1883-1965)
1. poème electronique
a. composed for 1958 Brussels World Fair
b. music accompanied projected images

Mario Davidovsky (b. 1934)
1. Synchronisms (1963-88)
a. solo instrument and prerecorded tape

Milton Babbit (b. 1916)
1. composer at Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center

Pauline Oliveros (b. 1932)
1. helped found San Francisco Tape Center, 1966 became director
2. mixed media, multichannel tape with live performance
3. experiments: sound generated and manipulated during performance

Tod Machover (b. 1953)
1. leader in contemporary music scene
2. five years as Director of Musical Research in Paris, IRCAM
3. professor of music and media at MIT
4. hyperinstruments: computer-enhanced and interactive acoustic instrument

Listening Activity: Hyperinstruments and Musical Interactivity
1. Begin Again, Again . . . by Tod Machover
2. chamber work with computer interaction
3. written for virtuoso cellist, Yo-Yo Ma

Chapter 47
Some Current Trends

Neoromanticism: Postmodern Approach
A. Eclecticism: past styles mixed with contemporary ones
B. Accessible musical vocabulary of post-Romantic masters

Jennifer Higdon (b. 1962)
1. Brooklyn-born composer
2. student of George Crumb
3. Pulitzer Prize and other prestigious awards
4. teaches at Curtis Institute of Music
5. style: “American” sound, rooted in tonality, dense textures, colorful timbral palette, wide-ranging dynamics
6. extensive output spans most genres

Higdon’s blue cathedral
1. orchestral tone poem
2. commemorates Curtis Institute anniversary
3. title refers to her brother, Andrew Blue Higdon
a. reflects journey of life
b. subtext of personal grief

John Corigliano (b. 1938)
1. New York-born composer
2. studied at Columbia University, Manhattan School of Music
3. produced Leonard Bernstein’s Young People’s Concert Series
4. positions at the Juilliard School, Lehman College
5. distinguished awards include: Academy Award, Grammy Award
6. diverse style: atonality, serialism, microtonality, aleatoric music
7. works: orchestral works, eclectic rock opera, stage works, choral, vocal, chamber music, film music

Corigliano’s Mr. Tambourine Man
1. song cycle for voice and orchestra
2. text: Bob Dylan poetry
3. follows emotional journey: innocence, awareness, political fury, apocalypse, victory of ideas
4. unified by recurring motives
5. orchestra includes piano, harp, saxophones, tambourine

Minimalism: repetition of melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic patterns
1. little variation, hypnotic effect
2. reaction against highly intellectual, complex music
3. influences: music of India, African cultures, jazz, pop, rock

Steve Reich (b. 1936) and Philip Glass (b. 1937)
1. non-Western music influences

Spiritual, or holy, minimalism
1. nonpulsed music: religious inspiration
2. slow-moving modal or tonal progressions
3. composers: Henryk Górecki (b. 1933), John Tavener (b. 1944)

Arvo Pärt (b. 1935)
1. Estonian composer
2. early compositions: Neoclassical and serial techniques
3. studied works of J .S. Bach; medieval and Renaissance music
4. notable periods of compositional silence
5. created new style: “tintinnabulation,” ringing of bells
6. musical focus: Latin and Orthodox choral music
7. works: orchestral, sacred choral music, concertos

Pärt’s Cantate Domino
1. scored for SATB chorus and organ
2. Latin text, Psalm 96
3. abandons traditional notation, similar to Gregorian chant

John Adams (b. 1947)
1. American composer
2. studied at Harvard University
3. professor at San Francisco Conservatory; advocate for contemporary music
4. influences: Steve Reich, rock
5. style: elements of Neoromanticism, minimalism
6. important works: Nixon in China (1987) opera, The Death of Klinghoffer (1991), Pulitzer Prize, On the Transmigration of Souls (2002), stage works, chamber music, vocal works, tape and electronic works

The Opera Doctor Atomic
1. subject: creation of atomic bomb and head physicist, J. Robert Oppenheimer
2. libretto by Peter Sellars
a. sources: memoirs of scientists, declassified government documents, poetry of John Donne and Baudelaire, sacred Hindu scripture Bhagavad Gita
3. opera takes place last days and hours before the first test
4. “At the sight of this”
a. test will go on despite bad weather
b. text: Bhagavad Gita
c. countdown begins
d. Krishna reveals himself as the Supreme God

Listening Guide 62: Adams, Doctor Atomic, excerpt (2005)
1. Act II, Scene 3, chorus: “At the sight of this”
2. verse/refrain structure
3. text declaimed on repeated notes in short phrases
4. offbeat brass and percussion accents
5. “O Master” recurs with dissonant tones
6. “When I see you, Vishnu” sustained chords
7. closing: buildup of tension, distorted electronic sounds

Listening Guide 50: Joplin, Maple Leaf Rag, (published 1899)
1. sectional form, four strains
2. moderate duple meter
3. syncopated, disjunct melody; chordal accompaniment
4. A section: ascending melody, upbeat in bass
5. B section: higher register, descends
6. C section: new key area, new rhythmic pattern

Listening Guide 51: Holiday, Billie’s Blues (recorded 1936)
1. 12-bar blues, short introduction, six choruses
2. laid-back slow tempo, steady accompaniment
3. vocal choruses 2, 3, 6
a. masterful rhythmic flexibility
b. jazz embellishments: scoops, dips
4. chorus 4: clarinet improvisation
5. chorus 5: “gut bucket” trumpet (raspy tone quality)

Listening Guide 53: Gershwin, Summertime, from Porgy and Bess (1935)
1. melancholy strophic aria, two verses
2. minor key, anticipates tragedy
3. languid melody, swaying intervals
4. vocal inflections: dips, slides, blue notes
5. rhythmic subtleties, gentle syncopations

Listening Guide 54: Bernstein, West Side Story, excerpts (1957)
1. Act I: the Dance at the Gym, Mambo
a. fast-paced Afro-Cuban dance
b. highly syncopated Latin beat; bongos, cowbells
c. jazzy riffs: woodwinds and brass
d. gang music sung alternately in English and Spanish
e. excited voices and hand clapping
2. Act I: Tonight Ensemble
a. 32-bar song form (A-A’-B-A”)
b. ominous three-note ostinato, brass and percussion
c. fast, accented, rhythmic dialogue
d. eduple meter love song
e. ensemble finale
i. Maria in high range
ii. simultaneous dialogue
iii. syncopated Latin rhythm in accompaniment
iv. dramatic climax

Listening Guide 57: Cage, Sonata V, from Sonatas and Interludes (1946)
1. (A-A-B-B) binary structure
2. two-voice texture
3. irregular phrases
4. A section: regular rhythmic movement
5. B section: quicker tempo, more disjunct and accented
6. ending: sustained dissonance

Listening Guide 58: Sheng, China Dreams: Prelude (1995)
1. three-part structure
2. opening: haunting pentatonic melody, oboe and English horn
a. dissonant figure in brass and low strings
3. texture becomes polyphonic, builds to ff climax
4. decreases to pp, returns to English horn melody
5. soft dissonance fades out

Listening Activity: The Moon Reflected on the Second Springs (Abing , Er quan ying yue)
1. Chinese traditional music
2. performed on erhu and yangqin (hammered dulcimer)

Listening Guide 59: Higdon, blue cathedral, excerpt (2000)
1. sectional, rondolike structure
2. languorous, ascending lyrical lines
3. sense of continual expansion, several climaxes
4. A section: bell-like timbres (tintinnabulation) over muted strings
a. solo flute, rising line, muted string chords, no sense of pulse
b. clarinet answers, harp and string accompaniment
5. pitched glasses and “chiming” near end

Listening Guide 60: Corigliano, Prelude from Mr. Tambourine Man: Seven Poems of Bob Dylan excerpts (2003)
1. modified verse-chorus structure, introduction and coda
2. instrumental introduction
3. verse 1: dreamy, slow, sung freely
4. chorus: fast, syncopated, disjunct, tambourine prominent
5. verse 2: louder, wide vocal leaps, prominent brass and percussion
6. verse 3: dramatic, shrieking vocal, tambourine rolls
7. verse 4 (partial): loud and dramatic, wide vocal leaps
8. instrumental interlude: vocal line, mysterious mood returns

Listening Guide 61: Pärt, Cantate Domino canticum novum (O sing to the Lord a new song) (1977, revised 1996)
1. three sections, each beginning monophonically
a. fluid, nonmetric: evokes Gregorian chant
2. expands to four-part choir, homorhythmic movement
3. tintinnabular style: evokes ringing of bells with voices

Cite this page

Music 101 M. Carpenter. (2017, Dec 13). Retrieved from

Music 101 M. Carpenter
Let’s chat?  We're online 24/7