Where are the nonrenewable sources of energy located? • How easy is it to gain access to these sources? • What are the consequences of using these sources (fuels)? • What are the costs (direct and indirect) of using these sources? Are there viable alternative sources of fuel? • What is the current cost of crude oil and other forms of energy? • What else have you learned about these resources? • What is the political environment for these energy sources? NATURAL GAS Advantages • Burns clean compared to cola, oil (less polluting) 70% less carbon dioxide compared to other fossil fuels • helps improve quality of air and water (not a pollutant) • does not produce ashes after energy release • has high heating value of 24,000 Btu per pound • inexpensive compared to coal • no odor until added Drawbacks • not a renewable source • finite resource trapped in the earth (some experts disagree) • inability to recover all in-place gas from a producible deposit because of unfavorable economics and lack of technology (It costs more to recover the remaining natural gas because of flow, access, etc. )
Other information • 5,149. 6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserve left (more than oil but less than coal) • 23. 2% of total consumption of natural gas is in the United States WATER POWER Pros • Provides water for 30-30% of the world’s irrigated land • Provides 19% of electricity • Expands irrigation • Provides drinking water • Supplies hydroelectric energy (falling water used to run turbines) • Easier for third world countries to generate power (if water source is available) • It is cheaper Cons • Destabilizes marine ecosystems • Water wars (up river and down river; e. . , the water war between Georgia, Alabama, and Florida is ongoing) • Dam building is very costly • People have to relocate • Some dams have to be torn down (Some older ones are not stable. ) • Restricted to areas with flowing water • Pollution affects water power • Flooding of available land that could be used for agriculture CRUDE OIL Advantages • Oil is one of the most abundant energy resources • Liquid form of oil makes it easy to transport and use • Oil has high heating value • Relatively inexpensive • No new technology needed to use Disadvantages Oil burning leads to carbon emissions • Finite resources (some disagree) • Oil recovery processes not efficient enough—technology needs to be developed to provide better yields • Oil drilling endangers the environment and ecosystesm • Oil transportation (by ship) can lead to spills, causing environmental and ecological damage (major oil spill near Spain in late Fall 2002) Issues • The world consumes more than 65 billion barrels of petroleum each day. By 2015 the consumption will increase to 99 billion barrels per day. • Fossil fuels such as oil take billions of years to form. In 1996, the Energy Information Administration estimates of crude oil reserves were 22 billio nbarrels. In 1972, the estimate was 36. 3 billion barrels. • Cost of oil has dropped since 1977. It was $15 per barrel then. It was $5 at the time the authors wrote the book.
NUCLEAR POWER Pros • Clear power with no atmospheric emissions • Useful source of energy • Fuel can be recycled • Low cost power for today’s consumption • Viable form of energy in countries that do not have access to other forms of fuel Cons • Potential of high risk disaster (Chernobyl) • Waste produced with nowhere to put it Waste produced from nuclear weapons not in use • Earthquakes can cause damage and leaks at plants • Contamination of the environment (long term) • Useful lifetime of a nuclear power plant • Plant construction is highly politicized WIND POWER Advantages • Continuous sources of energy • Clean source of energy • No emissions into the atmosphere • Does not add to thermal burden of the earth • Produces no health-damaging air pollution or acid rain • Land can be sued to produce energy and grow crops simultaneously • Economical • Benefits local communities (jobs, revenue) Disadvantages • For most locations, wind power density is low Wind velocity must be greater than 7 mph to be usable in most areas • Problem exists in variation of power density and duration (not reliable) • Need better ways to store energy • Land consumption COAL Pros • One of the most abundant energy sources • Versatile; can be burned directly, transformed into liquid, gas, or feedstock • Inexpensive compared to other energy sources • Good for recreational use (charcoal for barbequing, drawing) • Can be used to produce ultra-clean fuel • Can lower overall amount of greenhouse gases (liquification or gasification) • Leading source of electricity today • Reduces dependence on foreign oil By-product of burning (ash) can be used for concrete and roadways Cons • Source of pollution: emits waste, SO2 , Nitrogen Oxide, ash • Coal mining mars the landscape • Liquification, gasification require large amounts of water • Physical transport is difficult • Technology to process to liquid or gas is not fully developed • Solid is more difficult to burn than liquid or gases • Not renewable in this millennium • High water content reduces heating value • Dirty industry—leads to health problems • Dirty coal creates more pollution and emissions Other o Two types of coal—low rank (pollutes more), and high rank