Development Across the Lifespan Chapter 10

Social Comparison
Comparing ourselves to others in the same areas of behavior, abilities, expertise, and opinions is called:
Self Esteem
Vera’s belief that she is a good soccer player, but not good at singing refers to her:
Preconventional
Reward and punishment are most important to people in which of Kohlberg’s levels of morality?
Conventional
A student who decides not to cheat on an exam does so because he thinks he would feel guilty reasons at what level of morality?
Form cliques
Higher status children are more likely to what?
Social Identity theory
What theory provides an explanation of the complex relationship between self esteem and minority group status?
Finding and indentifying relevant social cues
Social problem solving begins with what?
50%
What percent of children in the US will pass through childhood living with both of their parents, each of whom has been married only one time?
Rigid-flexible
According to Weiner, attributions have all of the following dimensions EXCEPT:
self-fulfulling prophecy
When and expectation helps bring about the predicted event, which then strengthens the expectation, what occurs?
teacher expectancy effect
The cycle of behavior in which a teacher transmits and expectation about a child and thereby actually brings about the expected behavior is called what?
self-care children
Children who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their caretakers return from work are known as what?
greater emphasis on psychological traits
During middle childhood, there is a shift in self-understanding to a…?
to protect their self-image
Children tend to make downward social comparisons
have similar self-esteem as the majority group if they blame society for the prejudice they experience
According to social identity theory, members of a minority group
morality of contract, individual rights, and democratically accepted laws
According to Kohlberg’s theory the fifth stage of development is
goodness of self sacrifice
According to Gilligan, the second state of moral development is
restrictive play
Given their dominance hierarchy, what type of play do many school age boys engage in?
a goal to maintain equal status relationships
According to Carole Beal, the motivation of girls to solve social conflicts indirectly stems from
the psychological adjustment of the mother
The good adjustment of children whose parents both work is related to what?
industry vs. inferiority
The psychosocial stage of middle childhood is what?
12
Self esteem of most children tends to increase during middle childhood, with a brief decline around what age?
morality of individual principles and conscience
Students participate in sit-in demonstrations to support a belief about which they feel strongly.

; They believe the quality of life for everyone in the world is impacted. They are operating at what stage of moral development?

compassion
Gilligan’s research on women’s moral reasoning indicates that it is based on the concept of what?
encouraging victims to take responsibility for the bullying behavior
What is NOT a way to deal with schoolyard bullies?
social competence
Sarah has developed a collection of social skills that permit her to perform successfully in social settings. She has achieved what?
develop a dominance hierarchy
compared to middle school girls, boys tend to
blended family
a family which includes a husband and wife and at least one stepchild living with them is called a
asking children to choose teams and groups publicly
What does not increase social competence?
US
What country are people more likely to attribute school performance to stable, internal causes?
internal-external
What dimension is related to esteem related emotions?
more accepted by their peers than before training
group of unpopular 5th graders were taught the skills that underlie social competence. compared with a group of children who did not receive such training, the children who were in the experiment were
coregulation
middle childhood marks a period of what in which children and parents jointly control behavior
authoritative
which parenting style is most likely to promote a child’s self esteem
feel an obligation to their families to succeed
In the US, children in middle childhood from immigrant families
from Western cultures
Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized because his research subjects were primarily
believe that mutual trust is the centerpieve of friendship
In the 2nd stage of friendship, children
helps to emphasize the clear boundaries that exist between 2 sexes
Gender segregation of friendships during middle childhood
Sharon who is 7 years old and Sara who is 8 years old
Which siblings will experience the most intense sibling rivalry?
children often blame themselves for the breakup
An accurate statement concerning children’s reaction to their parents’ divorce is:

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