What was the period of romanticism in western literature and arts?
a movement of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that marked the reaction in literature, philosophy, art, religion, and politics from the neoclassicism and formal orthodoxy of the preceding period.
What did a man named William Mortan do?
was an American dentist who first publicly demonstrated the use of inhaled ether as a surgical anesthetic in 1846.
Who are robber barrons?
nobles who robbed travelers passing through their lands.
Swedish Chemist, invented dynamite
invented the light bulb
invented the telephone
Alexander graham bell
What did painters that used Impressionism try to capture?
fleeting visual impressions
Back in the 1800s, churches asked there worshipers to be involved in this …
believed in the ideology of objective reality and revolted against the exaggerated emotionalism of the Romantic movement.
the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races.
a series of workers and machines in a factory by which a succession of identical items is progressively assembled.
art that does not attempt to represent external reality, but seeks to achieve its effect using shapes, forms, colors, and textures.
What did David Thoreau do?
He wrote Civil Disobedience which would influence American dissenters for generations to come.
What did John Dalton discover?
The atomic theory
His discovery that most infectious diseases are caused by germs, known as the “germ theory of disease”, is one of the most important in medical history.
Who was the person that invented the process to produce steel?
What is a corporation?
a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
What was the middle class values as far as women in the 1800s? (how should they act, what should they do)
Cult of Domesticity which idealized women and the home throughout books, magazines, and popular songs.
What was Darwin’s theory?
stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual’s ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
Why did some countries industrialize faster and more than other countries?
simply because they started industrializing before other countries, and they probably had more opportunities available from the start to industrialize.
What was the romantic movement in reaction to in art?
What improvements occurred in the 19 century’s in cities?
Lamp posts, streets
What was the women’s movement mainly concerned with?
Women could not vote, receive an education and were considered the property of their husbands
What new feature in the 1800 had the greatest impact on the poor?
Sewage systems lowered mortality and increase life expectancy of the poor.
What was one of the key things you needed for industrialization?
Why did Darwin’s theory of evolution cause such a stir?
Caused a controversy over Christians because it makes man a simple animal and not a creation made in Gods image.
What was most highly regarded thing that the middle class was concerned with in the 1800s?
(They wanted people to be treated a certain way)
Middle class values were dominated by rules. Strict etiquette governed
What groups grew the fastest in the 1800s?
the middle class
What group helped labor reform?
Where did the poor live mainly in the 19 centuries in the cities?
What came out off when they discovered that germs caused disease?
created the first simple electric motor and the first dynamo
is a machine that generates electricity
identical components that could be used in place of one another
designed and flew a flimsy airplane
Orville and Wilbur Wright
shares in companies
an Italian pioneer who invented the radio
businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stocks
an association to fix prices, set productions quota, or control market
How did the Industrial Revolution spread in the 1800s?
A British mechanic opened a factory in Belgium in 1807. Other countries acquired British technology and created new technologies.
How did technology help industry expand?
Scientist developed new products and technologies, such as a process for producing steel, dynamite, and the dynamo for generating electricity.
How did the need for capital lead new business originations and methods?
To raise needed capital, large companies became corporations and sold shares of the business to investors.
How might the government change as a result of industrialization?
As business leaders gain power and influence on politics, government may begin to favor big business or grow corrupt.
the theory that infectious diseases are caused by certain microbes
identified the bacterium that caused tuberculosis, a respiratory disease that claimed about 30 million human lives in the 1800s
insisted on better hygiene in field hospitals, worked to introduce sanitary measures in British hospitals, and founded the world’s first school of nursing
discovered how antiseptics prevented infection
the process of fixing up the poor areas of a city
self-help groups to aid sick or injured workers
measures the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a society
Standard of living
Why did the rate of population growth increase in the late 1800s?
People were eating better and practicing better hygiene. Medical discoveries eliminated some diseases. Sanitation improved.
What are three ways that city life changed in the 1800s?
Three ways that city life has changed are: better transportation, street lights, and new sewer systems.
What laws helped workers in late 1800?
New laws allowed workers to unionize, expanded the right to vote, regulated working conditions, limited child labor, and set up pensions and disability insurance.
How did the rise of cities challenge the economic and social order of time?
By bringing people from different classes into closer contact; by allowing people to work in one place and live in another.
campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
two women who crusaded against slavery before organizing movement for women’s rights
Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony
right of women to vote
an African American suffragist, and is believed to have replied, “Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud puddles, or gives me any best place! And ain’t I a woman?”
English Quaker schoolteacher that developed modern atomic theory
argued that all forms of life, including human begins, had evolved into their present state over millions of years
movement of the 1800s that urged Christians to do social service
What are three values associated with the middle class?
Luxury, respectability, and a strict etiquette.
Why did women’s movement face strong opposition?
Men believed that women belonged in the home; they also thought that women were too emotional to vote.
Why do you think reformers pushed for free public education?
It would improve opportunities for working-class children.
Why did the ideas of Charles Darwin cause controversy?
Darwin’s ideas contradicted the widely accepted biblical account of creation.
two men who were a part of a cultural movement called romanticism that shaped Western literature and arts
William Wordsworth and William Blake
19th-century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
after a rebellious and wandering life he joined Greek forces battling for freedom
re-created France’s past in novels like the The Three Musketeers and The Hunchback of Notre Dame
a German composer who combined classical forms with a stirring range of sound
Ludwig van Beethoven
an English novelist that vividly portrayed the lives of slum dwellers and factory workers, including children
French realist who painted works such as The Stone Breakers, which shows two rough laborers on a country road
in France and William Fox Talbot in England had improved on earlier technologies to produce successful photographs
an impressionist that brushed strokes of color side by side without any blending
school of painting of the late 1800s and early 1900s that tried to capture fleeting visual impressions
experimented with sharp brush lines and bright colors, his unique brush work also developed a bold, personal style
Vincent Van Gogh
What are three subjects romantics favored?
They were interested in history, legends, and folklore; celebrated nature and dramatic action; and sought to stir emotions.
What did Courbet mean when he said, “I cannot paint an angel because I have never seen one”?
He meant that he painted only what he saw and not what he imagined.
In what ways were the new artistic styles of the 1800s a reaction to changes in society?
Romantics sought to escape or ignore the industrial society around them. Realist sought expose the evils of the industrial world. Impressionist responded to the development of photography.
Describe the impact of new technology on industry
New technology, such as electricity, sparked industrial growth and made production faster and less expensive.
Describe the impact of new technology on transportation
New forms of transportation moved people and goods farther and faster.
Describe the impact of new technology on communication
The telegraph and telephone connected people quickly over great distances.
What caused big businesses to emerge during the Industrial Revolution?
New technologies required the investment of more money; big,
powerful corporations allowed more people to invest in business.
How did the industrial Revolution improve city life? How did it
make city life worse?
• Improved: safety increased, police and fire departments were better
organized, diseases declined, standard of living rose.
• Worsened: neighborhoods were overcrowded, the number of slums increased
How did the Industrial Revolution influence the class structure of
Before the Industrial Revolution nobles and peasants made up the two
main social classes, and their roles were defined by their
relationship to the land. By the late 1800s, a large middle class
What existing beliefs did new scientific theories challenge?
That all atoms were alike, the age of earth, and biblical accounts of creation
How did artists, composers, writers, and others respond to industrialization?
Romantics emphasized freedom, imagination, and emotion. Realists focused on ordinary subjects, the harsh side of city life, and the
ills of the time.
What were the technological, social, and economic effects of the Industrial Revolution?
New technologies caused massive industrial growth and brought about the rise of the cities. Three distinct social classes emerged. As big
business boomed, it employed thousands of workers, controlled the market of entire industries, and enabled more people to invest in
How did technology affect the movement of people and goods in the
1800s and in the early 1900s?
New developments made it possible for people to move from one country to another and from rural to urban areas more easily
How might have an inventor viewed the Industrial Revolution ?
As an opportunity to use creativity
How might have an entrepreneur viewed the Industrial Revolution ?
As an opportunity for investment and profit
How might have a worker viewed the Industrial Revolution ?
As an opportunity for an improved standard of living
Do you think women’s lives improved as a result of the Industrial Revolution? Why or why not?
Yes, Women in some countries won the right to vote and the right to get an education
Referring to Oliver Twist, Dickens wrote that “to show [criminals]
as they really are, for ever skulking uneasily through the dirtiest
paths of life…would be a service to society.” How does his claim
reflect the goals of realism?
By portraying the criminal world, he may inspire society to solve the problem (not sugar coating)
What middle-class values are associated with the Victorian Age?
duty, thrift, honesty, hard-work, respectability
How did the realism movement differ from the romantic movement ?
Realism represented what was really real. It was the opposite of the romantic movement and made people aware of the grim conditions of the Industrial Age. Romantic movement was a reaction against the rationality and restraint of the Enlightenment.
How did romantic writers, artists, and musicians respond to the enlightenment?
Romantic writers, artists, and musicians broke free form the strict rules of the enlightenment.
What were the arguments against human suffrage?
Some said that women were to emotional to be allowed to vote, other said that women needed to be protected from grubby politics or that a woman’s place was in the home not in the government.
How had social order changed by the late 1800’s?
3 classes; upper, middle, & working class. Middle class values and tastes were idealized.
invented the first automobile using otto’s combustion engine
invented the first gasoline powered combustion engine
developed the telegraph
sent messages over wires
huge corporate structures that controlled entire industries
built standard oil company of ohio
what happened to europe’s population between 1800 and 1900?
what made city life better ?
sewers, street lights, and sky scrapers
wealthy merchants were able too ___
marry into noble families
in the middle class, people married ____
out of love
she worked with her brother to produce an aluminum production process
julia brainerd hall
in rural areas, school was not necessary only if ___
the child was not needed in the farm
campaigned for women to be admitted into Cambridge University
what were the effects of emily davis’s campaign?
she succeeded but faced riots by male students
who created the periodic table ?
theorized the earth was a million years old
where were the first fossils found?
first state that allowed women to vote
who wrote about the scottish clans?
who originally wrote the three musketeers?
two men that emphasized nature in art as well as painted peasant life and medieval times
john constable and j.m.w. turner
filled paintings with dramatic actions
wrote the doll house
wrote jane eyre
wrote wuthering heights
aurore dupin dudevant
wrote uncle tom’s cabin
harriet beecher stowe
wrote the awakening
improved upon earlier photography technology
louis daguerre and william fox talbot
william and catherine booth ____
set up the salvation army