The Romantic movement originated in
Rationalism/Age of Reason
Romanticism can be described as a reaction against the limitations of this 18th-century American enlightenment movement marked by an emphasis on: Rationality rather than tradition.
Literary movement that is characterized by the distrust of civilization, fascination with the journey, celebrating the individual spirit, and a love of the beauty of nature.
Also known as the Schoolroom or Household Poets — were a group of 19th-century American poets associated with New England.
A sense of innocence, a distrust of city life, and a need to go out into the natural world.
Characteristics of the Romantic Protagonists are
familiar subject matter
The ‘fireside poets’ were popular mainly because of their
The American Wilderness
According to American Romantic writers, the truth can best be found in
A figure of speech in which words are used in such a way that their intended meaning is different from the actual meaning of the words.
It may also be a situation that may end up in quite a different way than what is generally anticipated.Three types: situational, dramatic, and verbal.
A technique employed by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society by using humor, irony, exaggeration or ridicule. It intends to improve humanity by criticizing its follies and foibles.
A style of writing that is characterized by elements of fear, horror, death, and gloom, as well as romantic elements, such as nature, individuality, and very high emotion.
A literary movement that called on people to view the objects in the world as small versions of the whole universe and to trust their individual intuitions. Celebrated optimism, freedom, and self-reliance.
To use figurative language to represent objects, actions and ideas in such a way that it appeals to our physical senses.
Slant Rhyme/oblique rhyme
The stressed syllables of ending consonants match, however the preceding vowel sounds do not match. For instance, in words such as “shape/keep” the consonance is very strong.
A story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.
It is a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or silly but may include a latent truth. It is also used to illustrate an opinion or statement contrary to accepted traditional ideas.
The continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza.
A word for a sound; a type of sound device.
Two or more stressed syllables of a word group either with the same consonant sound or sound group
Something that asserts the contrary or opposite; inconsistent; logically opposite.
Figures of speech used to be more effective, persuasive and impactful. Examples: metaphor, simile, hyperbole, pun, idiom, etc.
5 forms: understatement or emphasis, relationship or resemblance, figures of sound, errors and verbal games.
The use of an object to signify ideas and qualities by giving them characteristic meanings that are different from their literal sense. Example: cross, winter, heart
The idea that the United States was to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory.
Characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines, as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.
James Russell Lowell, John Greenleaf Whittier, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Women’s Rights Poets
William Cullen Bryant & James Russell Lowell
The belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns or the interests of other countries.
William Cullen Bryant’s 1817 poem that established romanticism as a literary force in America.
First American writer who pioneered the American short story. He influenced Nathaniel Hawthorne.
James Fenimore Cooper
Remembered for writing the first truly original American novel. (frontier novels: Leatherstocking Tales)
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Father of Transcendentalism. Wrote an essay entitled, “Self-Reliance”.
Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist who wrote essay “Civil Disobedience” and book Walden.
Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, & Herman Melville
The United States declares war on Great Britain
“The Devil and Tom Walker” by Washington Irving is published.
The California Gold rush
James Fenimore Cooper writes The Last of the Mohicans. Construction on first railroad in U.S begins.
Stephen King & Anne Rice, influenced by Edgar Allen Poe.
The Romantic Hero
Unique, bold, brooding, eccentric. Natty Bumppo, Captain Ahab. Larger than life, unforgettable.
Years 1865 to 1900 have been called…
The Realistic Period in American Literature
Last 40 years of the 19th century marked…
Large scale changes
What contributed to these changes?
Industrial Technology, the Civil War, and the rapid growth of cities
Changes were occurring rapidly in American Life, but ___________ in writing developed gradually.
Toward the century’s close that literature would honestly….
Between 1860 and 1900 there was … . Great fortunes were being made, and Americans became aware of the power of money.
rapid expansion of commerce and industry
In a popular lecture delivered by Rev. Russel H. Cornwell, he said many times, …
“Money is power.”
After the Civil War, America had unlimited promise in …, but there was a growing sense of social contrast.
Workers, even women and children, had long hours at the mills and factories while the rich lived…
in their mansions
At a time when a person could buy a complete meal in New York City for …, the Hatch family sat for a portrait at the going rate of $1,000 per person.
Harper’s Weekly honored … at a lavish banquet held for his birthday.
The dinner consisted of … courses
Undoubtedly, Mark Twain was the most important writer of the period, but he contributed to … in his own way so he was not a true realist.
Twain is renown as a humorist, social critic, and …
The setting for Twain’s books (Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer) was the … before 1850.
Twain left for the West at the outbreak of Civil War. He tried gold mining, newspaper writing, and wrote stories about …
Twain became friends with Bret Harte, who won acclaim with readers in the East. Harte’s story … tells how the gamblers were left to raise an orphan baby and named him Tommy Luck because he brought luck to the camp.
“The Luck of Roaring Camp”
By the February of 1861, South Carolina and six other states had … from the Union. President Lincoln faced an open challenge to the Constitution.
The dead and wounded refuted the idea that war was romantic. … wrote about the Civil War in The Red Badge of Courage. Crane’s image for war was a machine. The industrial machine of the North helped end the War.
The War had accelerated …. By 1883 the Brooklyn Bridge opened. Entertainment changed from the serious lectures of Emerson to the humorous lectures as exemplified by Twain and Josh Billings.
Serious writers included … who was the leading advocate of realism. To Howells, realism meant telling the truth about life and recording its diverse aspects.
William Dean Howells
… were on the rise. They became large commercial ventures: there was a race for subscribers. New printing equipment helped newspapers expand. From 1880-1900 the number of newspaper subscribers increased twice as fast as the nation’s population.
Abuses were associated with the nation’s railroads because of _____. The biggest speculators in railroads included_____.
financial manipulation and speculation, Jay Gould, Cornelius Vanderbilt, J.P. Morgan, and James J. Hill
… wrote: “Maggies blossomed in a mud puddle.” Farm life was changing. The farmer was thought of in idealized terms. Hamlin Garland in A Son of the Middle Border wrote about women on the Midwestern prairies who had withered into complaining spinsterhood and ambitious youth who cursed the bondage of the farm.
… was leading Americans into a new century. By 1900 realism was firmly establish as an approach to writing in America, but would not achieve its literary heights until the 20th century.
James’ emphasis on artistic treatment in writing, as well as his involvement with the European theme, would find reflections in the literature of the …
Realism, in literture, is the tendency to emphasize the limitation that real life imposes on humanity, and to show how these limitations affect life.
In the first chapter of Huckleberry Finn Twain writes: “You don’t know about me without you have a read a book by the name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; but that aint no matter. _____.”
That book was made by Mr.Mark Twain, and he told the truth, mainly. There was things which he stretched, but mainly he told the truth
… not realism was the outlook of the day. Huck and Jim floated down the Mississippi River on a raft in the starlight night.
Twain arrived in … when the gold rush was in its last stages. The famous story by Twain came from this period: “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County.”
Honest pictures of hardships in the West seldom reached readers in the East. Readers in the East wanted colorful adventures about gamblers, outlaws, and mining camps. Romantic adventures, however, lost their appeal _____r.
of the realities of the Civil War
In April 1861, ….
the South’s attack at Fort Sumter ended efforts of peace. The war was on
In April 1865 ,….
Lee surrendered to Grant. General Lee said: “It is well that war is so terrible, or we should become too fond of it.” The North celebrated victory while the South faced rebuilding
… is what Twain called the punch line of his jokes. In the theater melodrama was at its height; the hero was saved just in the nick of time. Pulp literature which included nickel and dime novels became popular in the Luck and pluck Series by Horatio Alger.
In 1885 Howells wrote The Rise of Silas Latham. Howells also served as editor of _____.
The Atlantic Monthly, an important magazine. Howells also wrote twenty novels during his life
The _____ was the primary source of daily information and could, therefore, influence public opinion. Howells and Twain exchanged letters often. In one letter from Twain to Howells, Twain wrote, after reading the morning newspaper, he spent the rest of the day pleading for the damnation of the human race.
By the last decade of the 19th century realists were taking a closer look at many aspects of American life. ….
The rapid growth of cities made a strong impression of the writers of the day. Stephen Crane in Maggie: A Girl of the Streets tried to show conditions of the poor in the city
Another leading realist was Frank Norris who wrote The Octopus. … As the 19th century came to an end, the position of farmers in American life was declining. There was also a smaller population living on farms while the city was becoming increasingly important.
In this novel Norris told of the struggle between monopolistic railroads and the wheat farmers of California.
Henry James was the most individual of the realist group of writers and was ahead of his times. … .”
He spent much of his time in Paris, James, said, “we must grant the artist his subject