The weekly laboratory exercises are designed not only to stimulate your curiosity and heighten your powers of observation, but also to introduce you to and allow you to practice the scientific method. This laboratory activity will allow you to learn about and practice the scientific method as you study the impact of physical exercise on cardiovascular fitness. In this experiment, cardiovascular fitness will be determined by using an arbitrary rating system to “score” fitness during a variety of situations. The heart rate will be measured while standing, in a reclined position, as well as during and after physical exercise.
Goals of this Lab: Use a computer and exercise heart rate monitor to measure the human heart rate. Determine the effect of body position on heart rate. Identify, describe, and practice the steps of the scientific method Define and identify scientific questions. Define hypothesis and identify the qualities of a good scientific hypothesis. Design an experiment to test a hypothesis. Correlate the fitness level of individuals with factors such as smoking, the amount of daily exercise, or other factors identified by students. Collect data and summarize it in tables and graphs. Interpret experimental data and discuss the validity of these interpretations and conclusions Scientific Method The scientific method is neither complicated nor intimidating, nor is it unique to science. It is a powerful tool of logic that can be employed any time a problem or question about the world around us arises. In fact, we all use the principles of the scientific method daily to solve problems that pop up, but we do it so quickly and automatically that we are not conscious of the methodology.
In brief, the scientific method consists of 0 0 0 0 0 D Observing natural phenomena Asking a question (or questions) based on one’s observations Constructing a hypothesis to answer the question Testing the hypothesis with experiments Drawing conclusions about the hypothesis based on the data resulting from the experiments Publishing results in a scientific journal Experiment 27: Biology with Computers Lab 1 – Bill 211-Page 1 of 24 Lab 1: Heart Rate Lab (Revised Fall 2010) Making Observations The scientific method begins with careful observation.
An investigator may make observations from nature or from the written work of other investigators, which are published in books or research articles in scientific journals, available in the storehouse of unman knowledge, libraries. The following example will be used as we progress through the steps of the scientific method. Over the last couple of years you have been observing the beautiful fall colors of the leaves on the vine maples that grow in your yard, on campus, and in the forests in the Cascade Mountains.
You note that their leaves turn from green to yellow to orange to red as the whether turns progressively colder and the days of fall get shorter and shorter. However, the leaves do not always go through their color changes on exactly the same days each year. Asking Questions It is essential that the question asked is scientific question. I. E. The question must be testable, definable, measurable, and controllable. For example, one would have a tough time trying to test the following question, “Did a supernatural force such as God create all life on earth? Moreover, it would be difficult to define what God is because of the multitude of cultures around the world and their many definitions of God. It is interesting to note that the since this question is not a scientific question, and hence not testable, the courts of the United States have ruled that “creation science” should not be taught in science classes as has been demanded by various roofs in this country. However, that’s not to say that God did not create life, it’s just not testable, but rather, a matter of faith.
Now, back to the vine maple example… Being a curious and inquisitive person you ask, M/hat is responsible for the vine maple’s leaves changing color each fall? ” Developing Hypotheses After questions are asked, scientists try to answer them by proposing one or more hypotheses. A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a question has been asked. A hypothesis is an educated guess that is based on your observations. It is a trial solution to a question that will be tested through experimentation.
A useful hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable (able to be shown false or untrue). It is important to note that a hypothesis can be supported by experiments and/or observations, but can never be proved true. Back to the vine maples…. You have noted that vine maples change color in the fall on approximately the same dates each year, but this varies by a week or two each year. You reason that since air temperature is not constant each year in the fall, the progressively cooler days and nights in fall are responsible for stimulating the color changes.
Therefore, you hypothesize that the cooler days of fall are responsible for the color changes. A good hypothesis will always lead to predictions that are testable. A scientist never conducts an experiment without a prediction of its outcome. A hypothesis and its prediction(s) are often stated together as an “If… Then…. ” Statement. ” If the hypothesis is true, then the results of the experiment will be…. ” So you develop your hypothesis into a “If… Then…. Statement: “If progressively cooler temperatures are responsible for stimulating the color changes in the leaves of vine maples, then vine maples placed in a growth house and exposed to constant light (e. G. 12 hours light and 12 hours of darkness per day), and exposed o slightly cooler temperatures each day should go through the same color changes as would the vine maples in nature. ” The investigator will then evaluate the results of the experiment by seeing if the results agree with or contradict the prediction.
For example, if you conduct the experiment and discover that the vine maple’s leaves remain green, then the hypothesis has been falsified and another hypothesis must be developed. But if the leaves do change color, the hypothesis is supported, but not proved since other explanations and factors must be excluded through further experimentation. It is always possible that future evidence from other experiments might falsify the hypothesis. Thus hypotheses are never proven true, only supported by experiments and observations.
It takes only one experiment to falsify a hypothesis, but it takes an infinite number of experiments to prove a hypothesis correct. Experiment 27: Biology with Computers Lab 1 – Bill 211-Page 2 of 24 Lab 1: Heart Rate Lab (Revised Fall 2010) Testing Hypotheses via Experiments or by Pertinent Observations The most creative and challenging aspect of science is designing a means to test a hypothesis, be it through observation r by experimentation. Although many hypotheses may be tested by making observations (e. G.
All of the following were discovered through careful observation: Watson and Crick’s determination of Dona’s double helix structure, Robert Hooker’s Cell Theory, and Darning’s theory of evolution by natural selection), we will test most of our hypotheses in lab by conducting experiments. An experiment involves defining variables, designing a procedure, and determining controls to be used as the experiment proceeds. In any experiment there are three kinds of variables. Independent variable: The independent arable is the single condition (variable) that is manipulated to see what impact it has on the dependent variable.
The independent variable is the factor that causes the dependent variable to change. E. G. The temperatures the trees are exposed to is the independent variable in the vine maple example. The independent variable is the factor (i. E. Experimental condition) you manipulate and test in an experiment. The value of the independent variable is known as the level of treatment”e. G. The specific temperature(s) the trees are exposed to and for how long. A great challenge when designing an experiment is to be retain that only one independent variable is responsible for the outcome of an experiment.
As we shall see, there are often many factors (known as controlled variables) that influence the outcome of an investigation. We attempt, but not always successfully, to keep all of the controlled variables constant and change only one factor, the independent variable, when conducting an experiment. C] Dependent Variable: The thing measured, counted, or observed in an experiment. E. G. The color of leaves is the dependent variable in the vine maple example. C] Controlled Variables: These are the variables that are kept constant urine an experiment.
It is assumed that the selected independent variable is the only factor affecting the dependent variable. This can only be true if all other variables are controlled (i. E. Held constant) e. G. In the vine maple example: Species of vine maple, age and health of the trees used, length of day, environmental conditions such as humidity, watering regime, fertilizer, etc. It is quite common for different researchers, or for that matter, the same researcher, to get different and conflicting results while conducting what they think is the very same experiment.
Why? They were unable to keep all conditions identical, hat is, they were unable to control all controlled variables. In an experiment of classical design, the individuals under study are divided into two groups: an experimental group that is exposed to the independent variable (e. G. The group of trees that are exposed to the decreasing temperatures), and a control group that is not. The control group would be exposed to the identical conditions as the experimental group, but the control group would not be exposed to the independent variable (e. . The control group of vine maples would be kept at a constant temperature, everything else would remain identical. ) Sometimes the est.. Test of a hypothesis is not an actual experiment, but pertinent observations. One of the most important principles of biology, Darning’s theory of natural selection, was developed and supported by his extensive observations of the natural world. Since Darning’s publication of his theory, a multitude of experiments and repeated observation of the natural world continue to support Daring’s theory.
An important hypothesis may become a theory after it stands up consistently to repeat testing. A scientific theory is a hypothesis that has yet to be falsified and has stood the test of time. Hypotheses and theories can only be supported, but cannot be proved true by experimentation and careful observation. It is impossible to prove a hypothesis or theory to be true since it takes an infinite number of experiments to do this, but it only takes one experiment to disprove a hypothesis or a theory.
Scientific knowledge is dynamic, forever changing and evolving as more and more is learned. Lab 1 – Bill 211-Page 3 of 240 Experiment 27: Biology with Computers Lab 1: Heart Rate Lab (Revised Fall 2010) Conclusion Making conclusions is the next step in the scientific method. You use the results and/or pertinent observations to test your hypothesis. However, you an never completely accept or reject a hypothesis. All that one can do is state the probability that one is correct or incorrect. Scientists use the branch of mathematics called statistics to quantify this probability.
Later in the quarter you will use a statistical test called the Chi-square test to determine the probability that your hypothesis in a fly breeding experiment is correct. Publication in a Scientific Journal Finally, if the fruits of your scientific labor were thought to be of interest and of value to your peers in the scientific community, then your work would be submitted as an article for publication in a scientific journal. The goal of the scientific community is to be both cooperative as well as competitive.
Research articles both share knowledge and provide enough information so that the results of experiments or pertinent observations described by those articles may be repeated and tested by others. It is just as important to expose the mistakes of others, as it is to praise their knowledge. Presenting and Analyzing Experimental Results Constructing Tables and Graphs Once data is collected, it must be organized and summarized and interpreted to see if it supports or falsifies the hypothesis being tested. In this exercise, you will design tables and rapes to make your data easier to analyze and interpret.
The primary functions of tables and graphs are to (i) help you analyze and interpret your results, and (ii) enhance the clarity with which you present the work to a reader or viewer. Tables In formal lab reports and scientific papers tables are numbered consecutively and appear on the same page where they are referred to or discussed. The title, which is located at the top of the of the table, should give enough information to allow the table to be understandable apart from the text. Consider the following questions when constructing a table. How could the data best be organized to make it easy to interpret?
Would it be useful to average the data when presenting it? Should all of the data collected be presented, or only a summary table? Below is an example of a table that could be used to summarize part of the data obtained in an experiment involving fictitious data involving basketball and baseball players. Table 1 . Average pulse rates, recovery times, and fitness points for GRACE basketball and baseball players taken before and after exercise (All data is fictitious!! ) GRACE GRACE Basketball Players Baseball Players 62 68 12 11 14 9 88 1254114811
Average standing pulse rate before step test (beats/min) Average pulse rate after step test (beats/min) Average Fitness Points for heart rate increase after exercise Average recovery time (sec) Fitness Points for recovery rate Sample Size Lab 1 – Bill 211-Page 4 of 24 Lab 1: Heart Rate Lab (Revised Fall 2010) Graphing Data Often the first step in analyzing the results of an experiment is the presentation of the data in the form of a graph. A graph is a visual representation of the data, which assists in bringing out and finding the possible relationship(s) between the independent and dependent variables.
Examination of a graph makes it much easier to see the effect the independent variable has on the independent variable(s). Accurate and clearly constructed graphs will assist in the interpretation and communication of your data, and when presenting a well-documented argument supporting or falsifying your hypothesis in the final steps of a scientific investigation. All graphs should be easy to interpret and labeled fully. The following guidelines will help you construct a proper graph. How to become a graphing wizard 0 Use Excel or graph paper of a high quality and a straight edge (i. . Ruler) to plot data neatly and accurately. D Always graph the independent variable on the x-axis (horizontal axis), and the dependent variable on the y-axis (vertical axis). O The scales of the axes should be adjusted so that the graph fills the page as much as possible. The axes often, but not always, start at zero. Choose your intervals and a scales to maximize the use of the graph paper. Intervals should be logically spaced and easy to interpret when analyzing the graph (e. G. Intervals of Xi’s, g’s, or ass are easily interpreted, but non-integer intervals (e. G. 3. Ass’s, 2. G’s, etc. ) are not. To avoid producing a graph with a lot of wasted space a discontinuous scale is commended for one or both scales if the first data point is a large number. Simply add two tic marks between the zero and your lowest number on one or both axes to show that the scale has changed. C] Label the both axes to indicate the variable and the units of measure. Write the specific name of the variable. Do not label the axes as the dependent variable and independent variable. Include a legend is different colors are used to indicate different aspects of the experiment.
Graphs (along with drawings, and diagrams) are called figures and are numbered consecutively throughout a lab report or scientific paper. Each figure s given a title that describes contents, giving enough information for the figure to be understandable apart from the text (e. G. Figure 1. Relationship between the change in vine maple leaf color changes and temperature). Generally, the title is placed above the figure or graph. 0 Choose the type of graph that best presents your data. Line and bar graphs are the most common. The choice of graph type depends on the nature of the variable being graphed. Line vs…
Bar Graphs Line Graphs are used to graph data that only involves continuous variables. A continuous variable is capable of having values over a continuous angel (i. E. Anywhere between those that were measured in the experiment). For example, pulse rate, temperature, time, concentration, pH, etc. Are all examples of continuous variables. Making a Line Graph 1. Plot data as separate points. Make each point as fine as possible and then surround each data point with a small circle. If more than one set of data is plotted on the same graph, distinguish each set by using circles, boxes, triangles, etc. 2.
Generally, do not connect the data points dot to dot. Draw smooth curves, or if there appears to be a linear relationship between the two variables, draw a line of best fit. 3. If more than one set of data is plotted on a graph, provide a key of legend to indicate identify each set. Label the graph as a figure and give it an informative title as described earlier. Lab 1 – Bill 211-Page off Figure 1. The effect of pH on the digestion of lactose by the intestinal enzyme lactate. Note that a line graph was used to graph the data because both variables, pH and the rate of digestion, are continuous variables. H is a continuous variable since pH values between those used in this particular experiment are possible (e. G. PH 3. 45, pH 5. 07, etc. ) Bar Graphs are used if the data involves a discrete variable. A discrete variable, unlike a continuous variable, cannot have intermediate values between those measured. For example, a bar graph would be used to plot the data in an experiment involving the determination of herbicide concentration (continuous variable) found in tree species X, Y, and Z (discrete variable).
Bar graphs are constructed using the same principles as for line graphs, except that vertical bars are drawn in a series down the horizontal axis. Figure 2. The concentration of chlorophyll in the leaves of three different tree species: dogwood, vine maple and red alder. Note that a bar graph was seed since tree species is a discrete (or non-continuous variable) because it is impossible to have a species between those examined. Lab 1 – Bill 211-Page off Lab 1: Heart Rate Lab (Revised Fall 2010) Discussing and Communication Results The last component of a scientific investigation is to interpret the results and their implications.
The tables and graphs are studied to see if the data supports or refutes the hypothesis. If the hypothesis has been falsified, alternate hypotheses should be suggested and tested. If the hypothesis is supported, the investigator suggests additional experiments to test and/or strengthen the hypothesis. After a hypothesis has been thoroughly tested and the investigator is satisfied of the validity of the results obtained, he/she will communicate the results to other scientists. Preliminary results may be presented within a laboratory research group and at scientific meetings where the findings can be discussed.
Ultimately, the completed project is presented in the form a of a scientific paper that is reviewed by scientists within the field, and then published in a scientific journal. Other scientists around the world will scrutinize the ideas, procedures, results, analysis, and conclusions. Because of this, science is self- correcting, meaning that errors that may occur are usually discovered within the scientific community. Scientific communication, whether written or verbal, is essential to the advancement of scientific knowledge.
During this laboratory course and in lecture, you will be asked to present and interpret your results before your group and/or the entire class. Moreover, you will write components of a scientific paper for a few of the laboratory investigations. A complete scientific paper or an oral presentation of an in-depth scientific investigation will be required of you later in the quarter. Materials (per group of four students) Computer Serial Box Interface Fernier Heart Rate Monitor Heart Rate Monitor program Stepping platform, 9 inches high Metronome Caution !!
D Do not attempt this exercise if physical exertion will aggravate a health problem. C] Inform your instructor of any possible health problems that might be affected if you participate in this exercise. Procedure Developing a Question, Hypothesis, and Experimental Procedure 1 . In teams of 4, take about 10 minutes to discuss several specific questions about an independent variable related to cardiovascular fitness. For example, you might ski: “Is there a difference in cardiovascular fitness between smokers and non- smokers? Select your group’s best question and propose a testable hypothesis.
C] Note: Cardiovascular fitness will be assessed by determining and comparing the heart rate while standing, reclined, going from a reclined to a standing position, and before and after physical activity as outlined in steps 5 – 25, below. 2. Write your group’s best question and hypothesis on the Lab Report Sheet at the end of this lab handout and contribute your group’s question and hypothesis to the Class List on the front board or overhead projector. Experiment 27: Biology with Computers Lab 1 – Bill 211-Page off Lab 1: Heart Rate Lab (Revised Fall 2010) 3.
As a class……. C] C] C] Determine which question the entire class will attempt to answer. Record the question on the Lab Report Sheet. Develop a testable hypothesis of the “If….. , then….. ” Variety. Record on Lab Report Sheet.. Design an experiment that will test this hypothesis. All teams will perform the same experiment. List in numerical order each step of the experimental design beginning with the recruitment of one test subject for each treatment category. Remember to designate group members to make he various measurements and to record the data obtained.
List the steps of the experimental design the on Lab Report Sheet.. 4. Each group should recruit one subject for treatment 1 and another subject for treatment 2. Test subjects will take turns being tested. The other students in the group will serve as investigators. When being tested, one of your partners should record your data on your lab report sheet. Setting up the Heart Rate Sensors 5. Prepare the computer for data collection by opening the Biology with Computers software as follows: Plug the hand held heart rate sensors into the Go-Link connector.
Go to my computer ј click on classes on Madonna 0 Science 0 Classes Logger Pro ј Experiments 0 Biology with Computers њ open “Expo. 27” Heart Rate & Fitness. 6. Have your first test subject stand calmly and grasp the sensors with the arrow on the sensor and the arrow on the receiver both pointing upwards. Click the COLLECT button and continue collecting until the test subjects’ heart rate is steady and within the normal range for the individual usually between 55 and 85 beats per minute. It may take a minute or two for readings to stabilize with certain individuals.
In such cases, allow the readings to debilitate before starting data collection. 7. Click on the STOP button to stop data collection when you have determined that all equipment is functioning properly. 8. To obtain the average heart rate, maximum heart rate, etc. : Select “Analyze” on the menu bar at the top of the screen and click on Statistics this will place a table onto the graph. 9. Erase the data from this run and begin the experiment with your first subject. Lab 1 – Bill 211-Page off Measurement of the Resting Heart Rate while Standing Please Note!