The Mid-Fourteenth Century Crisis in Europe

Why is the mid-fourteenth century regarded as an era of crisis in the West?
Europe was plagued by devastating outbreaks of the plague as well as by destructive wars.

Why did the plague spread so rapidly on the European continent in the mid-fourteenth century?
The bacterium that likely caused the disease, Yersinia pestis, followed major trade routes to and across the continent.

What is historians’ highest estimate for the percentage of the European population that perished from the plague between 1348 and 1400?
60 percent

Individuals who sought to appease God by traveling from city to city and scourging themselves with whips were know as…

How did the outbreaks of the plague lead to the founding of new universities in Europe?
Local princes received money and property from those who had perished, and they used this income to become patrons of education.

Why were the Jews frequently targeted as scapegoats in the wake of the Black Death?
The mass deaths revived allegations from centuries earlier that the Jews had poisoned wells and springs.

Which of the following initially precipitated the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)?
King Edward III of England invaded France at Calais and laid claim to the French crown.

Why did Joan of Arc, an unknown peasant girl, succeed in helping the French turn the tide against the English in the Hundred Years’ War?
Announcing herself as the savoir of France, she gave the French dauphin and the French state a greater spiritual authority.

Toward the end of the Hundred Years’ War, which of the following shifted support from England to France?
The duchy of Burgundy

In what way may the Hundred Years’ War be seen as a world war?
Both the England and the French hired mercenaries from other countries.

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How did warfare change during the Hundred Years’ War?
Armies became more professional and centralized.

What triggered Wat Tyler’s Rebellion in 1381?
The imposition of a universal tax to raise revenue for the Hundred Years’ War.

Which Ottoman sultan succeeded in conquering the city of Constantinople in 1453, thus administering the deathblow to the Byzantine Empire?
Mehmed II

In The Defender of the Peace (1324), Marsilius of Padua stated that the…
true church consisted of the people, who should elect the pope.

What triggered the Great Schism in 1378?
The election of Urban VI, an Italian, as pope

The philosophical position known as Ockham’s razor maintains that…
simple explanations are to be preferred over complex explanations

Conciliarism can be understood as…
a movement to have the cardinals or the emperor convene a church council

Under pressure from Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund to resolve the Great Schism, Pope John XXIII convened a church council at Constance in 1414, which elected a new pope,…
Martin V.

An indulgence was a certificate offered by the church to…
reduce the time one spent in purgatory.

The Lollards were…
a heretical religious group inspired by John Wycliffe.

Why did Jan Hus’s ideas gain such a large number of followers in Bohemia?
His ideas tapped into the resentment of the Czech majority against the dominant and largely urban German-speaking minority.

What was the central desire of Jan Hus’s followers?
To receive both the bread and the wine at Mass

Who were Cincius Romanus, Poggius Bracciolinus, and Bartholemaeus Politianus?
Delegates at the Council of Constance who admired the writings of the ancients

During the late medieval period, there was both a flowering of vernacular literature and a…
revival of classical learning that led to a new intellectual movement called humanism.

In their quest to revive the cultural glory of the ancient world, Renaissance humanists focused much attention on…
classical history and literature.

What is Francesco Petrarch best known as?
The first humanist

What Renaissance humanist s known for the work Oration on the Dignity of Man?
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

The open spaces, marketplaces, and public squares built in many Renaissance cities in Italy were known as…

Sandro Botticelli and other Renaissance painters mined the ancient world for new subjects, such as…

Which of the following is regarded as a single innovation in Renaissance art?
The use of linear perspective

By the end of the fourteenth century, Lithuania, whose rulers were the last in Europe to remain unconverted to Christianity, had…
entered into a union with Poland.

What alliance brought together many cities in northern Germany and the Baltic for the purposes of trade and defense?
The Hanseatic League

Between 1384 and 1476, what state filled the territorial gap between France and Germany but was, unlike most other European states, an artificial creation whose existence depended entirely on skillful rulers?

In the year 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella succeeded in reunifying Spain by conquering what kingdom on the Iberian peninsula?
The Muslim kingdom of Granada

One important element of the French king’s campaign to consolidate and strengthen the monarchy was Gallicanism, which was characterized by which of the following?
Royal control over ecclesiastical revenues and the appointment of all French bishops

Which of the following was a long-term result of the so-called Ciompi Revolt of 1378?
It led to the creation of a guild for the wool workers of Florence.

The political power of the Medici family of Florence stemmed from…
the wealth of the Medici bank and its involvement in papal finances

The catasto was an attempt by Florentine rulers to…
survey the population and surrounding territories for the purposes of taxation

Where did 100,000 Jews convert to Christianity in 1391 in an effort to save their lives in the face of vast persecution?
Castile (Spain)

Why did Ferdinand and Isabella establish the Inquisition in Spain in 1478?
Resentment was growing at the success of those Jews who had converted to Christianity.

The term “humanism,” when applied to Renaissance Italy, refers primarily to the…
scholarly interest in the study of the classical cultures of Greece and Rome

“He desired glory and excellence beyond that of anyone else. He showed favor to vernacular poetry and all the fine arts. Under him the city was not free, but it would have been impossible for it to have had a better or more pleasing tyrant.”
The passage above most accurately describes…
Lorenzo de’ Medici

Italian society differed form the rest of Europe during the Renaissance in which of the following ways?
number of urban commercial centers

The artistic technique depicted above is associated with which of the following periods?
Italian Renaissance

All of the following were common subjects of the Italian Renaissance works of art EXCEPT…
peasant life

The 1358 uprising of the French peasants against the nobles amid the Hundred Years’ War; it was brutally put down.

A peasant girl (1412-1431) whose conviction that God had sent her to save France in fact helped France win the Hundred Years’ War.
Joan of Arc

The term historians give to the disease that swept through Europe in 1347-1352.
Black Death

A step beyond confession and penance, these pardons lifted the temporal punishment still necessary for a sin already forgiven. Normally, that punishment was said to take place in purgatory. But it could be remitted through good works.

The papal dispute of 1378-1417 when the church had two and even three popes. It was ended by the Council of Constance.
Great Schism

The long war between England and France, 1337-1453; it produced numerous social upheavals yet left both states more powerful than before.
Hundred Years’ War

A league of northern European cities formed in the fourteenth century to protect their mutual interests in trade and defense.
Hanseatic League

The ruling family of Florence during much of the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries.

The sultan under whom the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.
Mehmed II

A literary and linguistic movement cultivated particularly during the Renaissance and founded on reviving classical Latin and Greek texts, styles, and values.

An Italian poet who revived the styles of classical authors; he is considered the first Renaissance humanist.
Francis Petrarch

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The Mid-Fourteenth Century Crisis in Europe
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