Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on Morphological and Non Enzymatic Anti Oxidants of Medicinal Plants: A Review

Medicinal plants are important sources of medicines since the dawn of human civilization. Synthetic growth-controlling chemicals are becoming progressively more significant in the viable management of plant growth in agriculture and horticulture. Various phases of plant growth are altered by a diverse array of endogenous and exogenous assets. Among the internal assets, phytohormones have an important role in coordinating various stages of growth in plants. These regulators have an impact on plants’ morphological, physiological, and biochemical aspects. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the major form of auxin present in the majority of the plants and is the first among the hormones to be characterized.

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In this review, we focused on the effects of IAA on morphological and nonenzymatic antioxidants of medicinal plants.

Keywords: Civilization; Development; Endogenous; Growth; Morphological.

Introduction: Medicinal plants are an important part of the herbal industry because of their various medicinal properties. Herbal plants have several medicinal and therapeutic properties. Chemically synthesized drugs are used more in comparison to herbal drugs but now the use of chemically synthesized drugs is reduced and people are now using the herbal products frequently [1].

Various phases of plant growth are altered by a diverse array of endogenous and exogenous assets. Among the internal assets, phytohormones have an important role in coordinating various growing phases of plants. The plant response to PGRs can differ with plant varieties, ecological surroundings, growth medium conditions, phase of the plant, and intrinsic metabolic stability [2]. IAA is the major form of auxin present in the majority of plants and is the first among the hormones to be characterized. IAA is the only form of auxin that enhances cell division and elongation, cell width, and root growth [3].

Role of IAA in Plant Growth

Root growth is an important characteristic of plant growth and survival. Roots are the major organ of the plant which control the uptake and absorption of water and nutrients from the soil and helps in translocation throughout the plant. Saglam et al. [4] studied the effect of IAA on stem cuttings of Salvia fruticosa Mill. and found that root length increased with an increase in the concentration of plant growth regulator. Hussain et al. [5] conducted a pot experiment to assess the morpho-chemical response of Psoralea corylifolia to different concentrations of IAA (control, 50, 100, and 150 ppm) and found that root length was highest at 100 ppm concentration. The development of optimal leaf area is important to photosynthesis and is considered a regulator index of plant growth. The leaf area in stem cuttings of Dillenia suffruticosa was improved by the application of IAA [6]. Mbagwu et al. [7] resulted that IAA enhanced the leaf area at a low concentration in comparison to a high concentration in Gongronema latifolium Benth. The number of leaves and their arrangement on the main stem and side branches determine the structure of the plant canopy. Bhandari et al. [8] observed that number of leaves in Verbascum thapsus were increased by decreasing IAA concentration. Treatment with a 50 ppm concentration of IAA had maximum leaves in comparison to concentrations of 100 and 200 ppm. Foliar application of IAA (25 and 50 ppm) significantly enhanced the number of leaves in Vigna sinensis [9]. The fresh weight of Plantago ovate L. was not affected by the application of the IAA at low concentrations (20 and 40 ppm) [10]. But according to Vail et al. [11], IAA increased the fresh weight of the Bambusa arundinacea plants. IAA increased the dry weight of the Pimpinella alpine at low concentration in comparison to high concentration [12].

Role of IAA in Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants Defense System

The chlorophyll content is one of the major factors which affect the photosynthetic activity of plants. Czerpak et al. [13] found that IAA strongly stimulates the content of chlorophyll in Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Wimm.). When IAA was applied on Cymbopogon martini, chlorophyll content increased maximum at 50 ppm concentration in comparison to 100 ppm concentration [14]. The total chlorophyll content was found to be increased with an increase in IAA treatment in Mentha arvensis L. [15]. The antioxidant action of phenolic compounds is due to their ability to eliminate radical species and function as metal chelators. The roots grown in a liquid medium supplemented with IAA showed higher phenolic acid accumulation in Eryngium maritimum [16]. IAA increased the content of phenols in Silybum marianum [17]. IAA increased the phenolic content of Fragaria vesca as compared to in vitro grown plants [18]. Flavonoids provide plant defense against ultraviolet light, and phytopathogens and are also responsible for color formation in flowers [19]. Flavonoid content increased with IAA treatment in plant tissue cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra [20].

Conclusion: Medicinal plants are grown for different plant parts and their active constituents are used in many ways, especially for drugs. PGRS are known to significantly accelerate the various growth phases of plants. It was evident from the above study that IAA enhances the morphological and antioxidant defense system of medicinal plants, hence had a good potential for improving the growth and medicinal properties of the plant.

References:

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Effects of Indole-3-Acetic Acid on Morphological and Non Enzymatic Anti Oxidants of Medicinal Plants: A Review. (2022, May 13). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/effects-of-indole-3-acetic-acid-on-morphological-and-non-enzymatic-anti-oxidants-of-medicinal-plants-a-review/

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