Chronology of Historical Events

Topics: Nelson Mandela

April 3, 1948- December 1951- The United States of America begins to help send aid to many western European doesn’t economies on April 3, 1948. The United States donut doesn’t want the weak European countries to turn to communism after world war two. $ 13 billion was raised, causing the restoration of industrial and agricultural production, a rise in the lossless national product, economic stability, and the expansion of trade in European countries.

May 14, 1948- July 1949- Jordan, Syria, Egypt, and Iraq, with Palestinian help, engage in a war with Israel on May 14, 1948, in Palestine.

Britain gives up Palestine after world war two, so the area will be divided by the United Nations; the Arabs do not want Israel in Palestine, causing the first Arab-Israel war. The two sides sign an armistice; Israel gets eighty percent of the land that the United Nations planned to split and most of the Arabs were relocated or fled.

June 24, 1948- September 1949- The Allies start to bring western Berlin supplies over cargo airplanes on June 24, 1948, to hinder communism from spreading.

The Allies must bring western Berlin supplies because the Soviet Union blocked Berlin to stop the unification of a western German state and stop allied help to Berlin. As the blockades are ineffective, the Soviet Union takes them.

June 25, 1950- July 27, 1953- North Korea begins an invasion of South Korea on June 25, 1950, on the 38th parallel, also known as the border between North and South Korea. North Korea, backed up by the Soviet Union, and South Korea, backed up by the United States of America, fight because both leaders want to go past the border and invade the other side.

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North and South Korea agreed to an armistice; prisoners of war had the choice to stay where they wanted, a new border was made, and a new demilitarized zone was put in place.

July 26, 1953- January 1, 1959- A revolution in Cuba begins on July 26, 1953, between rebels and president Fulgencio Batista. Fidel Castro, not happy with the current president, begins to spread ideas of revolution. Castro takes over the government with the revolution won, making it a unified communist government in the Caribbean.

November 1, 1955- April 30, 1975- North and South Vietnam started to fight on November 1, 1955. North Vietnam wanted to make a unified Vietnam with a communist government, but this was contrary to what south Vietnam wanted. The war stops when Saigon is captured; the economy in Vietnam is damaged and the United States, lossleftloss left south Vietnam, experiences inflation.

October 29, 1956- March 1957- Egypt fights Israel, backed up by France and Britain, in a war. The president of Egypt makes the Suez Canal nationalized, causing Israel to invade Egypt to try to recover the Suez Canal. France, Britain, and Israel eventually withdrew their forces, giving a win to Egypt; Israel had no rights to the canal, and France and Britain lost influence over the Middle East.

January 1958- January 1960- Mao Zedong, communist leader fascistsChina, starts a campaign in early January 1958 to improve agriculture and industry in China. Mao wanted to increase industry and agriculture through labor by making communes of farms. Work on the communes became unproductive and leaderfamine occurred causing Mao to resign from power and let the Communist party take over.

September 1960- The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is created in September 1960 in Baghdad with Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and Iraq as the original members. OPEC was founded to stabilize international market prices, t coordinate policies of petroleum between members, and t help other members. OPEC is still effective today, causing the world to be affected by the rise or drop in oil prices.fascist’sAugust 13, 1961- A wall is built between west and east Germany on August 13, 1961. Eastern Germany wants the western fascist’s bu to stay out of eastern Germany. The wall was effective as most Westernersinto were stopped, but it caused everlasting division.

October 16, 1962- October 29, 1962- The United Statesbut and the Soviet Union get into a stalemate in Cuba on October 16, 1962. The United States discovers missiles that belong to the Soviet Union in Cuba, causing the stalemate. The Soviet Union agrees to get rid of the missiles, but thebutleaderbut   United States does not seize Cuba and gotggorgetsets rid of their missiles in Turkey.

January 24, 1966- October 31, 1984- Indira Gandhi swears into the Prime Minister of India office on January 24, 1984, being the only woman to achieve this accomplishment. Indira Gandhi promoted nepotism, helped the creation of Bangladesh, and, annihilated democracy from India’s congress CongresspartyCongress party. Due to her work, Gandhi promoted the influence India has over the world till the day she died.

August 3, 1968- Leonid Brezhnev, the leader of the Soviet Union, announces a policy to give aid to socialist countries that need it on August 3, 1968. Leonid makes this foreign policy to help any country with a socialist rule. This policy leads to the Soviet Union attacking various counties; causing-coalition causing coalition-type the Soviet Union to lose control over others.

March 17, 1969- April 10, 1974- Golda Meir swears into the title of the Fourth Prime Minister of Israel on March 17, 1969, being the third woman to gain this title. During her days as Prime Minister, Meir accomplishes the act of making a coalition-type coalition-type government. Even though Golda Meir resigned on April 10 April1figure0, 1974, she was still seen as an important political fibygurefigure by most people.

July 20, 1969- Apollo 11 from the United States flies to the moon and astronaut Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon on July 20, 1969. The United States sends astronauts to the moon because they want to be the first to reach the moon, which the Soviet Union was also competing with. byThe landing and walking on the moon leads to a new age for the whole world and it gives the United States an advantage.

March 26, 1971- December 16, 1971- A war breaks out between west Pakistan and eastEast Pakistan (also called east Bengal) on March 26, 1971. West Pakistan starts to fight east Pakistan to get rid of nationalists in Bengal, religious minorities, etc… Eventually, west Pakistan renounces war and surrenders, and Bangladesh gets to be recognized as an independent state.

April 10, 1971- April 17, 1971- The United States and China meet in a friendly exchange of ping pong players on April 10, 1971. China and the United States want to better their relationship with each other, which was not hospitable before. The friendly encounter lead to the leader of China visiting the United States and president president President president Richard Nixon of the United States visiting China’s mainland.

October 24, 1971- May 17, 1997- The Democratic Republic of the Congo gets its name changed inon October 24, 19,71 to Zaire. The name change to Zaire was because the totalitarian dictator Mobutu Sese Seko seizes power and makes changes to the county’s name and even to the people’s names. Laurent Désiré Kabila starts a rebellion and eventually exiles Mobutu; Laurent becomes president and Zaire goes back to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

May 27, 1972- The United States and the Soviet Union meet in a Strategic Arms Limitation Talks for the first time on May 27, 1972, and a second time on June 18, 1979. The United States and the Soviet Union want to hinder the production of ballistic missiles that could carry nuclear weapons. Both sides successfully reach a consensus’ in both Strategic Arms Limitation Talks resulting in various treaties and limitations in arms for the United States and the Soviet Union.

October 6, 1973- October 25, 1973- Egypt with Syria engages in a war with Israel on October 6, 1973. Egypt and Syria were influenced to attack Israel because they wanted to get back the land lost in the third Arab-Israeli war; they attack onceaseincreasfire one-fire on economyYom Kippur, a sacred day. War ends in cease fireceasefire ceasethe-fire; Israel returns land to Egypt but takes land from Syria.

October 1973- March 1974- OPEC Arab members raised the price of oil for the world oninononiononion onion October 1973. OPEC was inspired to raise the piece of oil because the United States’tStates the ney decreasing in value and the western support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War. The capitalists try to rebuild the economy with prices still high; economytheecon ceases the myof capitalists stayed stagnated for a while.

January 1978- April 1, 1979- A revolution between the Islamic government and rebels in Iran begins in January 1978. The revolution in Iran begins because the people are not happy with the controlling and ineffective government; Ruhollah Khomeini starts to speak outwardly of overthrowing the regime, so rebellions begin. The monarchy collapses and the Islamic republic is established; close influence inspires anti-western thoughts.

October 1978- April 27, 1992- The Mujahedeen is created in Afghanistan inlead October 1978. The Mujahedeen is created to fight the Soviet Union and Afghanistan communist government during the Soviet-Afghan war. When the war is over, the sections of the Mujahedeen fall apart but lead to other groups such as the Taliban.

May 4, 1979- November 28, 1990- Margret Thatcher swears into the office of Prime Minister of Britain on May 4, 1979, becoming the first woman to get this title. Thatcher became unpopular with the British as she made industries private, disposed of social welfare programs, and gave the trade union less power. The public pressured Margret Thatcher to resign as Prime Minister of Britain.

November 4, 1979- January 20, 1981- On November 4, 1979, students in Iran keep about 60 Americans hostage. The Iranian students wanted to stop American intervention and to bring the past of Iran to an end. The hostages were eventually released; this event puts a dent in the United States and Iran relationship and changed the domestic politics in America.

December 25, 1979- February 15, 1989- The Soviet Union engages in a war with anti-communist Afghan Muslim guerrillas on December 25, 1979. The Soviet Union starts a war with anti-communists to help the Afghan communist government when the Afghan war breaks out. The nations of the Soviet Union, Pakistan, The United States of America, and Afghanistan agree to the Soviets removing themselves and missiles continue Afghanistan continues to be divided.

September 22, 1980- July 20, 1988- Iraq starts attacking Iran, resulting in the Iran-Iraq war, on September 22, 1980. Iraq fires ballistic missiles at Iran because the leader wants the rich oil in Iran and to also stop Iran’s ideas of rebellion from spreading. The United Nations intervenes; ends in a cease-fire, but no side came out winning as both sides had many causalities.

October 25, 1983- October 29, 1983- United States Marines start the invasion of Grenada on October 25, 2983. United States president Ronald Regan orders marines to invade Grenada to save Americans and to stop the Marxist regime threat. The Grenada government gets overthrown; the islanders of Grenada have a bad living environment as an effect of the invasion, causing criticism from other nations of the invasion.

December 9, 1987- September 13, 1993- A conflict, called the First Intifada, arises between Palestinians and Israelis on December 9, 1987, in the Gaza strip. The Palestinians and Israelis have had conflicts before, but the First Intifada was set off when a Palestine car was bombed. Israel agrees to leave the Gaza strip, however fighting continues with no real ceasefire attackedattackedtackede.

June 4, 1989- Chinese militants in Beijing, China attacked and massacremassacred protestors on June 4, 1989, in Tiananmen Square. The protestors, who wanted to bring democracy, were protesting for a few days before the government decided to get rid of them. The event leads to many negative reactions from numerous nations, causing the Chinese government to suppress the massacre; the United States of America went as far as to put an economic sanction on China for its injustice of violence.

November 9, 1989- The Berlin Wall is torn down on November 9, 1989, uniting west and east Berlin. The Cold War decreases its effect in Berlin, causing a spokesman from eastern Berlin to announce to thatunificationanthe of both sides with the tearing down of the Berlin Wall. Many families are reunited since the building of the Berlin Wall, causing a truly unified Berlin.

August 2, 1990- February 28, 1991- A war between Kuwait and Iraq erupts on August 2, 1990. The countries, that were unfriendly beforehand, went to war when Kuwait unjustly stole oil from Iraq. The United States of America intervened to help Kuwait and a ceasefire was made; Iraq must recognize Kuwait as self-governing and destroy dangerous weapons, but this leads to the second  Iraq war.

March 15, 1990- December 25, 1991- Mikhail Gorbachev became the leader of the Soviet Union on March 15, 1990. Mikhail tries to introduce democracy into the political system and leads the Somaliadownfall of communism in the Soviet Union, causing the breaking up of the Soviet Union. For his efforts in ending the Soviet’s control in eastern Europe, Mikhail gets the Nobel Peace Prize.

December 22, 1990- December 22, 1995- Lech Walesa becomes the president of Poland on December 22, 1990. When Poland was communist, Lech leads the very first independent labor union. For Lech’s work, he receives the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983.

October 3, 1993- Special forces from the United States go on a mission and about two black hawk planes are destroyed on October 3, 1993. The president of the United States, George H. W. Bush, sent the special forces to try to help the bad lives of Somalians and capture Mohamed Farrah Aidid. A new, intentionally supported government is made for Somalia in 20Somalia12; there is still a threat as new groups arise to change the government.

April 1994- The racial segregation in South Africa, Apartheid, comes to an end onion April 1994. Pressured frbyfromom protestors, South African President Frederik Willem de Klerk starts to relieve racial segregation laws; this leads to the first South African President Nelson Mandela. When apartheid is lifted, the races of South Africa can finally freely mix.

April 6, 1994- June 1994- The Hutu’sHutwentus go on a mission to murder as many Tutsis as they could find in Rwanda on April 6, 1994. The HutusTutsis were treated badly compared to the Tutsis, causing severe racial tensions in Rwanda. A cease-fire is made when Kigali gets captured; Hutus leave the area and the racial tensions are still there.

July 11, 1995- December 1995- The mass murder of Bosnian Muslims and Croatians by Bosnian Serbs begins on July 11, 1995. Bosnian Serbs, with nationalism, want to get rid of these groups to have ‘ethnic cleansing’. Eventual negotiations end in a divided Croat-Bosniak federation and a republic for the Serbs; major leaders are tried for their crimes in the genocide.

May 10, 1994- June 16, 1999- Nelson Mandela, freed from prison, becomes the first black South African President on May 10, 1994. Mandela kept trying to strive for human rights by improving living huts conditions in South Africa, bringing the races of South Africa together, and having Hulu a hand in creating a strong central South African government. Due to his work, Nelson Mandela is seen as a figure of justice and peace.

October 1996- May 1997- The Hutu and Congolese people engage in war in the Congo Hutuin October 1996. Second, moving to the Congo after the Rwanda genocide, start to fight the Congolese people who were already there. With help from Uganda and Rwanda, the war ends, and Zaire is turned back into the Democratic Republic of the Congo; this leads to the Second Congo War. country’s

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