Cultural heritage represents a country’s national identity and pride and maintains and enriches that country’s culture. Therefore, conservation of the monuments remained from our ancestors requires everybody’s serious and unremitting effort.
Conservation, renewal, restoration, and technical study of cultural and historical matters are issues which have a special Status among various forms of art and science in the present century and this is due to two reasons: firstly, progress of humankind in this century has created a factor called environmental pollution which not only has caused new destructive processes of cultural/historical monuments but also has accelerated the previous destructive processes by several times, and secondly, the rapid advance of various sciences, especially chemistry, has lead to the contribution f new methods and materials to this significant issue.
Keywords?Air Pollution, Climatic, Historical Monuments l. INTRODUCTION JOSSES and edifices are the most memorable places for the tourists who travel the world in order to see the heritage, past, and culture of people all over the globe.
There are many of such houses and buildings in all corners of the world. According to educational experts, showing the cultural heritage to the youth not only creates national pride in them but also helps them follow the example of their honorable past.
But since the necessary budget is not allocated to identifying the problems and restoration of these buildings, this lasting heritage is in danger of falling into oblivion. One of the major, and at times controversial, issues in the field of architecture and urbanism in countries nowadays is conservation of urban areas and historical architecture and different opinions about how to preserve these spaces and valuable ancient buildings concerning which, sometimes, disagreements go beyond the realm of architecture and urbanism and involve socio-political issues.
Many studies have been performed about conservation of historical monuments Shores Kanji is with the Department of Architecture ,lactic Sad University, Mishmash Branch, Shakeouts,loran (corresponding author to provide phone: 00989171224278; e-Mail: [email protected] Com). Hosannas Candid is with the Department of Architecture ,lactic Sad University, Mishmash Branch, Shakeouts,loran (corresponding author to provide phone: 00989171224278; e-Mail: [email protected] Com). With regard to architectural and urban traditions as well as richness of the precious monuments of the past, Iran is undoubtedly one of the most remarkable countries in the world.
Protection of cultural and historical alluding and environments is important due to reasons: first, preservation of the material and spiritual heritage of our ancestors and, second, using them in education and research for the purpose of discovering the principles and values utilized in these monuments. Valuable historical monuments are those whose construction dates back to the eras during which the construction principles and calculations of the present day were not employed. Consequently, these monuments are seriously damaged by the natural destructive factors with instant or gradual function or by the human destructive factors.
In this article, damages to historical monuments due to climatic factors and air pollution are discussed and suitable solutions are recommended. Destructive factors in historical monuments can be categorized as follows: Natural factors with instant function, natural disasters (earthquake, lightening, fire, flood, drift and movement of earth… ) Natural factors with gradual function physical factors (wind, sunlight, changes in moisture, changes in temperature, acid rain, air polluters… ) Chemical and electrochemical factors found in nature Vegetable destructive factors
Biological and microbiological factors Complex factors Social factors due to profiteering or negligence and mismanagement in the third world societies Inherent and internal factors due to the weakness of techniques or lack of knowledge about the climate or available material In this study we will focus on climatic and physical factors but other factors will also be examined. The aim of this study is to diagnose the problems of historical buildings due to climatic factors and air pollution in various parts of Iran with different climatic conditions and recommending suitable solutions. 93 World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 56 201 1 cloth, etc. In museum halls and storerooms and even in the basements (during the war). Normal environmental destructive factors such as severe fluctuations in temperature and moisture and the seasonal changes in these two factors, fire… Are not new; they have always existed and have had their destructive effect on the cultural heritage over the years.
But in the twentieth century, especially during the recent decades, destructive mechanisms have become so sophisticated and their pace so fast that if proper attention is not paid, omelet collapse of part of the historical moon aments and other cultural heritages might really occur. And perhaps it is because of this serious warning that, recently, various institutions and centers have employed researchers and experts in different scientific fields such as chemistry, physics, restoration of historical monuments, biology, geology, archeology, astrology… Ho meticulously study these historical/cultural properties and the mechanisms of their destruction. Undoubtedly, one of the major responsibilities of such centers would be the scientific and accurate study of disintegration processes f various materials and, in fact, diagnosis of the problems of these monuments. And in this regard, the effect of environmental pollution especially chemical and acid rains in deteriorating the construction materials and, consequently, historical monuments is very important.
And the results of such studies will directly contribute to conservation, restoration, and maintenance of our cultural heritage. One of the gases which contaminates the air in industrial regions is Andrei sulfur gas which, eventually, changes into sulfuric acid and affects many substances.