Psychosurgery is the elimination of nerve cells or fibers psychosurgery was developed in the 1940s after experiments showed that behavior can be changed by making incisions in the brain. This surgery almost died in the 1980s and 1990s the surgery was a great way to progress our knowledge in mental illness. There was a case called “The American Crowbar Case” it provided a study to the brain and the behaviors of humans. In the 1930s, frontal lobotomy was developed to help the treatment of mental illness.
There were some cave paintings that suggest that early on in our life exists tried to understand how to perform surgery. They used a tool called Trephine to cut through the portions of the skull they were trying to figure out the brain as well as discovering other types of organs. Psychologists made a theory that anyone with shock and trauma was administered the surgery in the 1940s the US performed about 18,000 surgeries.
Most doctors thought they can kill off all the bad parts of the brain they started to go into people’s brain not knowing what the outcome could be.
In the 1930s the frontal lobotomy was developed to help the treatment of mental illness. In 1949 Egas Moniz was awarded a Nobel Prize for medicine. The surgery was a great way to progress our knowledge of brain sickness. It was founded win the 19th century but was abuse in the 20th century. Prefrontal Lobotomy offered hope to mental illness patients that were told they were incurable.
The surgery was later performed in the late 1960s due to “miracle stories”. In 1945, DR. Walter Freedman wanted to develop a technique to gain access to the frontal lobes of the brain going through the eye socket with an ice pick
Moniz said he had a 70% success rate when it comes to the different types of disorders. Although it was solving “psychotic” symptoms but there are still effects that are so severe they might have done more harm then good. When it came to surgery, they never had any idea what they were doing some surgeries were forced by people usually ended in mild changes in memory. The surgeries didn’t have the best outcome most of the time Moniz was shot by one of his former patients and was later paralyzed. Some of those patients agree that they had very successful surgery but, that amount of people are small which doesn’t make it really reliable. There was one patient named Matthew Frames his neurosurgeon said and I quote “I am very afraid of this man.
He is unpredictable and scary he dives into people he could kill” Matthews’s history makes psychosurgery a long hope Matthew has had no control over his seizures since he was 11 years old. A neurologist said, ‘he appears to be frightening to others” Matthew did have surgery on both the right and left side of his brain at a different time of course. Unfortunately, the medication and surgery didn’t work, and they hope people see it as a medical issue instead of a criminal issue. This surgery is used for many different types of disorders. It is used for treating Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and even obsessive-compulsive disorder. A patient that has Parkinson’s disease has problems with depression and comes in later on in the illness. A patient that has depression or is starting to take on depression can face a long time for a positive outcome.
Schizophrenia has not yet been this part of being treated this way due to biological basis problems. When Gottlieb Burckhardt had performed on six different brains that were diagnosed with schizophrenia. When they came to the US, they got shut down they didn’t want to give them any more patients to practice on. There were about twenty-one patients that took on stereotactic psychosurgery for their illness since 1993. They came out with different outcomes such as aggressive behavior, and obsessive-compulsive disorder and seven had depression with anxiety disorders. Deep brain stimulations have been a success in the US and Canada for obsessive-compulsive disorder and to decrease the rate of depression. This has continued in other places, but the US is limited to approval for this treatment.in most Australian states, they use the deep brain stimulation as a treatment of illness this illness is a form of psychosurgery.
When it comes down to surgery or even making the decision about surgery you want to make sure everything will go as planned. Well, for some patients that didn’t happen of course you are always aware of the complications before the surgery, yet you always hope for the best. In this case, psychosurgery did have some complications. Some of the complications can be changes to your personality, epileptic disorder(seizures), lack of voluntary control over urination(bedwetting), sleepiness, intellectual functioning, memory loss, paralysis and even in some cases death. When some people get the side effect of personality changes it makes them feel guilty about bad behavior and complete removal of responsibility.
Brain surgery has improved from them for example, they use modern technology to some of the work. These are the steps the use when doing the surgery they start off by drilling a small hole into the skull of the patient. They then cut through the brain tissue and inset a surgical instrument until it reaches the specific cluster. It neural connection which to them it’s a keyboard linking the emotional triggers. As soon as the surgical instrument is in the right place the surgeon then turns on the laser, they use laser to burn all the bad tissue away. Many doctors think this is way better and not because they are more advance today then they were back then. They say that they are successful due to the fact that the procedures actually work you must think that they do this surgery any person that has a mental illness. They actually wait and see if the first to medications actually work. If that doesn’t work, then you have to go to a counselor for a while once they see no change that when they go ahead and do the procedure.
A Columbia University Medical Center surgeon can perform psychosurgeries on people that have OCD you must be thinking what this has to do anything with the brain. Well the cingulate (part of the limbic system) which is distrusting brainpower to certain tasks. It alerts on an important task and gives you satisfaction when the task is done. This part of the brain can go crazy it doesn’t give the brain to respond and he brain doesn’t get satisfied. There are even cases that have voices, thoughts, and rituals that take over their brain. In the University of Arizona in Tucson they still do psychosurgeries in this particular area in order for you to be able to have this surgery done you have to qualify.
Surgeons no longer destroy large amounts of brain tissue they pinpoint to a millimeter-long cluster of cells in order to stop anxiety or obsessive-compulsive disorders. They go after the behavior that go with organic diseases of the brain and body. This era doesn’t really want to know about new knowledge or new demands to help the mentally ill. Many doctors or surgeons have used the homeless, poor, children and the imprisoned as their guinea pigs so they can psychosurgery to become alive again. They say that the people they use to do this procedure can become beneficiaries that still has promise to keep.
The advantage of having the surgery is it reduces the risk of suicide. Studies say that more than 40% has improved when they took on the surgery. Almost 30% improved a little more than what they had. The disadvantage of the surgery is that 25 got worse,4% had died and 30% had no change at all. While one of the advantages is reducing suicide, it increased the amount of seizures, weight gain but, the most problem is that the surgery is inseverable and can’t be taken back when and if the patient get worse than before.
Brain surgery has many levels of self-care, it could be a real old one at that there was this surgery that was called “trepanation’. That surgery cut holes through the bone to your brain that way you can access the brain so much easier they say when they found those skulls have grown even after the surgery and even after they were recovering. These skulls have been found all over the world such as in China, India, France etc. In the wanted to use this operation it would cause certain death. Having surgery with an open skull is not taken so lightly and they take major precautions. During this surgery they had a 75% of people long-lived so long that the bone marrow grew around the open part of the skull. That percentage is more than brain surgery in the 19th century Brian’s surgery during that time 75% of the patients died. Doctors at that time believed that the “evil spirits” or “demons” produced what we know as mental illness.
After 50 plus years of psychosurgery having a bad reputation, some psychiatrists are trying to improve psychosurgery. Some of there procedures include deep brain stimulation. They say the most promise is going to come from patients who suffer with Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). When doing the procedure, it is guided by an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Using the MRI is different than when Freeman did the surgery blinded. They can go into the brain a little bit more precise than before. Some of the psychiatrists are fully aware of the cation needed in studying tis subject due to the public’s comments in the 1940s. they want to show how important it is how science has improved from the past up to the present.
Despite everything throughout the years that have to deal with psychosurgery many psychiatrists are still willing to do psychosurgery on selected patients. Seventy-four percent of psychiatrists would consider appropriate patients for the surgery. Psychosurgery is a flawed vision of a relationship from the brain tissue many surgeons don’t want to let this illness die and let all the patients and the patient’s family to suffer.
Many doctors haves tried to use shock or drugs they use shock in three stages the first stage was insulin, but it didn’t work it had some disadvantages. The second one is Metrazol which is a drug The Psychiatrist thought since the drug could cause irregular movement, he had found a cure. Last but not least electroshock treatment. Electroshock therapy (ECT) can be used to treat deep depression if the other treatments aren’t effective physicians thought they can get to a man’s inner strife through chemicals. The use of drugs made the patients easy to handle and make their suffering decrees a little more some drugs during this time were used to treat depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia the use of drugs didn’t last as long as they had hoped they say they would drug their patients out of consciousness.