What (if anything) is the difference between additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping and 3D printing? Is there such a thing as a subtractive manufacturing, and if so, what would an example be? 3D printing is a type of additive manufacturing. Additive manufacturing is the process of adding material layer by layer until a final product is created. 3D printing is a type of additive manufacturing that can use a wide range of material types and can produce a wide range of products.
Subtractive manufacturing is the process of taking a large chunk of material and breaking it down into a desired product. A basic example of this would be sculpting. Sculptors start with a large block of material such as marble and chip away at it until it becomes the desired product.
Define Reality Capture and provide two primary examples of ways in which reality capture can be done. Reality capture is a process that creates 3D models out of real tangible objects.
Private consumers and industry professionals are able to use different types of software to create 3D data out of any object they wish recreate by 3D printing. Two popular methods of reality capture are 3D scanning and photogrammetry. 3D scanning utilizes 3D scanners that use lasers in order to capture an image of the desired object. This image can then be uploaded onto a computer and be used to print a 3D copy of the desired object. Photogrammetry uses multiple photos from every angle of an object in order to create a 3D model on the computer.
The photos that are taken of the object can be compiled to make a high-resolution model of the desired object. Using CAD (computer assisted drawing) software 3D printer users are able to generate models from scratch to mimic actual objects in reality. Discuss each of the primary steps in the 3D printing workflow. Be sure to discuss what role validation plays in the process.
Step 1- The first step in a 3D printing workflow is to create the desired model to be printed. This step can either be completed by way of reality capture via scanning or photogrammetry or by utilizing CAD software to create a brand new object.
Step 2- The next step is to prepare the model for print; this is done by software that can create an STL (standard tessellation language) file. STL files cover a 3D model in a large mesh of triangles that can be put to together to create a smooth surface. The smaller and higher amount of triangles that are used will mean a higher resolution for the final printed product. Also part of step two is validation. Validation of the model must be done before printing to ensure that the object will be printed correctly. Validation includes the resolution, color, size and over shape of the model to be printed.
Step 3- The third step in the workflow is to print the physical product. This step requires the printer to ensure that he or she is using the correct type of printer as well as the correct material or filament.
Step 4- This final step in 3D printing is called post-processing. The post processing step may involve washing away excess material or sanding the final product to achieve a higher resolution. This step usually takes only a few minutes and is often completed by the printer itself. Describe examples of kinds, types, differences, and similarities between professional and consumer-grade 3D printers. Be sure to incorporate information from the reading from this module regarding consumer and professional 3D Printers.
Consumer grade 3D printers, although being much cheaper and smaller than industrial or professional grade printers are often far slower, less reliable and produce objects of lower resolution. Although both consumer and professional style printers can sometimes print with the same materials such as plastics, professional printers are generally able to print with dozens of multiple materials depending on the specific manufacturer. Consumer grade printers generally cost between $200 and $3,000 while industrial models can range anywhere from $50,000 to $500,000. It is also important to point out that industrial 3D printers have a much higher resolution than consumer models. Industrial models can achieve finished products with resolutions as low as 3 microns while consumer printers can only achieve approximately 100 microns.
Describe some of the quality control and assurance concerns; issues and problems that can occur with 3D model printing. Anytime a model is sent to a 3D printer, the print maker must ensure that the object they are printing is correctly printed. The print maker must take many different aspects of the print into consideration before printing. The time it will take to print the final object is very important. If the object is being printed for a customer it is important that the final product is printed within the specific time constraint of the customer. It is also important to ensure that the resolution of the print is high enough for the specific functionality of the object. It also important to ensure that the printed object serve whatever function it is intended to serve. The cost of the print is important as well. It is necessary to ensure that the cost of any 3D print project is the range of what the print maker can meet.