Sigmund Freud once said, “ The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water”(McLeod, 2015). The majority of our attitudes, beliefs, ideas, and thoughts are motivated through our subconscious or unconscious minds. Therapy can be a tool used to explore new ideas and lead us to a life of deeper fulfillment and better mental health. According to ‘Benefits of Psychotherapy,’ 2018), One in five Americans has a mental health condition. Therapy can help people cope with such disorders as depression, anxiety, phobias, compulsions, and relationship issues.
Anyone can gain something from the mental health benefits of therapy. There are numerous amounts of therapy available to people today. They can be classified into about six broad categories. These categories are psychodynamic or psychoanalysis, behavioral, cognitive, humanistic, biological and integrated or holistic (‘Benefits of Psychotherapy,’ 2018).
Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy is an approach that focuses on changing certain negative behaviors and finding the root cause of these behaviors to prevent them from reoccurring(‘Different Approaches,’ n.
d.). According to Psychotherapeutic Techniques, “Psychodynamic therapy is verbal and interpretative and are aimed at restructuring the representations of relationships through the use of insight.” IPT, interpersonal. IPT is a supportive approach that tries to connect the external with the internal. This is usually used for a relationship and social roles. It normally lasts 12-16 weeks. Person-centered therapy is person-centered therapy PCT, less structured and non-directive. Echoing back clients concerns developed by Carl Rogers. Helps clients see themselves from a different perspective. (s8) Psychodynamic is still used widely today.
Psychoanalysis therapy is short-term and can include a variety of techniques. Sigmund Freud is credited with the invention of psychoanalysis, although it has been changed and extended from his original design (‘Different Approaches,’ n.d.). Psychoanalytic therapy is based on the idea that a person’s development is often One such technique is a supportive therapy called suggestion. It is a procedure that attempts to create ideas, impulses, and forms of behavior in patients supported by the authority the therapist has. Another is abreaction which provides an emotional purge by talking about certain events that are linked to the symptoms. Counseling is a mix of the first two techniques where a therapist can offer advice or guidelines on how to cope with situations or paths to go down. Confrontation is where the therapist tries to direct the patient’s attention to certain aspects that the patient might have overlooked and reviewed the behavior. Clarification is when the therapist helps the patient to be more self-aware of feelings or emotions. Interpretation is based on communication to explain to the patient their unconscious emotions that may drive these unwanted behaviors (Psychotherapeutic Techniques, n.d.). Psychoanalysis is still practiced by psychiatrists, social workers, and mental health professionals (‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d.).
Behavioral therapy is an approach based on the psychology of learning to explain psychological disorders and the ways to change these behaviors(Psychotherapeutic Techniques, n.d.). Ivan Pavlov was one of the early contributors with his classical conditioning learning. According to ‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’, classical conditioning is defined as “a form of learning in which a subject comes to response to a previously neutral stimulus by continually pairing it with an unconditional stimulus that elicits the desired response.” E.L Thorndike’s operant conditioning also plays a part in behavioral therapy with the rewards and punishment behavior (‘Different Approaches,’ n.d.). As defined by ‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’, “operant conditioning is a type of learning in which an individual’s behavior is modified by its consequences; the behavior may change in form, frequency, or strength. Behavioral therapy focuses more on changing actions and behaviors instead of the unconscious mind (‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d.). There are many benefits to behavioral therapy such as reversing negative patterns of thinking, coping with stress and anxiety, increased self-esteem, and new ways of thinking and learning (‘Benefits and Drawbacks,’ 2018). Multiple techniques are used to treat behavioral disorders. The exposure technique includes getting the patient to be exposed to contact with the trigger responses and then using effective methods to deal with anxiety. With enough exposure, the response should decrease less and less. Relaxation training purpose is to relax muscles to remain calm in trigger events. “Aversion techniques involve pairing the stimulus with a response to be eliminated with a stimulus that causes unpleasant or aversive responses so the likelihood of the undesired response would be decreased (Psychotherapeutic Techniques, n.d.).” Reinforcement therapy is used to increase desirable behaviors. Modeling is behavior that is imitated and learned from another. The behavioral trial consists of practicing positive behaviors to use in real life situations (Psychotherapeutic Techniques n.d.). Behavioral therapies for children and teens focus on unintentional rewards that lead to negative behavior. The therapist encourages children and teens to try new experiences and ignore unwanted behavior. Setting goals and giving positive rewards create positive behaviors. This technique can be an effective treatment for ADHD (‘Behavior Therapy,’ 2017). It can also be combined with parental training which teaches parents or caregivers to effectively reinforce children and how to effectively observe bad behavior and how to correct it (‘Behavior Therapy,’ 2017).
Cognitive therapy’s main focus is on the way people think instead of the way people act (‘Different Approaches,’ n.d.). The main focus is to make the client more active and positive in their role in life and become more healthy and responsible (‘What Is Cognitive,’ 2015). Some benefits can be preventing relapse of addiction, managing anger, coping with grief or loss, and managing chronic pain (‘What Is Cognitive,’ 2015). Therapists believe that to change behavior is to change the way of thinking. Some major contributors to cognitive therapy are Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck (‘Different Approaches,’ n.d.).Cognitive therapy can be a treatment for PTSD. Treatment for PTSD includes changing the negative evaluations and memories of trauma in order to interrupt the negative behavior that’s disrupting everyday life (‘Cognitive Behavioral,’ 2017).
Cognitive-behavioral therapy or CBT works to solve current problems and change unhelpful thinking and behavior. CBT therapists believe that emotions occur because of our interpretation of an event, and not on the event itself. CBT is the most widely researched and most effective treatment for depression, eating disorders, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders, according to ‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d. One specific treatment used is dialectical behavior therapy or DBT, which combos of cognitive techniques with acceptance approach like mindful awareness, and distress tolerance. This gives patients skills and coping mechanisms to deal with powerful emotions and feelings (‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d.).
The humanistic therapies focus is upon people’s capacity to make rational choices and find their maximum potential (‘Different Approaches,’ n.d.). The humanistic belief is that people are naturally good. Humanistic therapists use Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to reach the top, self-actualization(‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’). One of the focus of emotions is empathy and unconditional positive regard. ‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ defines unconditional positive regard as “ the care that the therapists need to have for the client, such as warmth, acceptance, and non-judgment that allows for a more open flow of information and more trust.” There are three main types of humanistic therapy. First is client-centered therapy where therapists help clients change by emphasizing their concern, care, and interests (‘Different Approaches,’ n.d.). This is an environment in which a client can establish their true identity(‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d.). Next is Gestalt therapy which focuses on the importance of the here and now and accepting personal responsibility (‘Different Approaches,’ n.d.). It is more important to understand what and how clients are feeling instead of what is causing these emotions(‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d.). Lastly is the existential therapy which focuses on free will, self- determination, and the search for meaning (‘Different Approaches,’ n.d.).
Biological therapy is a therapy that uses altercation of the body’s natural functioning for treatment. Drug, electroconvulsive, and psychosurgery therapy are examples. Many psychiatrists and medical professionals use drugs to help alleviate the symptoms of some psychological disorders. Anti-anxiety medication, or tranquilizers, are a medication used to treat anxiety and make patients calmer. Some examples are Xanax and Valium. Antidepressants are used to regulate mood disorders by allowing a person’s brain to increase certain neurotransmitters. Some examples are Zoloft, Prozac, and Paxil (King, 2018, p. 545). Lithium is a common treatment for bipolar disorder by influencing norepinephrine and serotonin. Antipsychotic drugs, such as Haldol and Clozaril, that stop an agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior and produce better sleep patterns. These are mainly used to treat schizophrenia (King, 2018, p. 546). Electroconvulsive therapy causes electrically shocked seizures as a treatment for psychological. ECT is mainly used today to treat severe depression and other disorders as a last resort after patients have not responded to drug therapy or any other therapies. A patient receives anesthesia and muscle relaxants beforehand so they sleep through the procedure and no pain is felt. The electric current is only applied to the right side of the brain. Psychosurgery involves the removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve the individual’s adjustment. This process cannot be reversed. Antonio Egas Moniz developed this technique in the 1930’s as a last resort. According to King, “he felt should be used with extreme caution and only as a last resort (2018, p. 547).”
Holistic therapy focuses on the relationship between the mind, body, and spirit to achieve a greater sense of the self (‘Holistic Psychotherapy,’ 2017). Holistic therapy can be dated back to Hippocrates who emphasized the importance of equilibrium within a person (‘Holistic Psychotherapy,’ 2017). Holistic therapy includes such practices as heart-centered hypnotherapy, breath work, and guided imagery. These therapy exercises work on three levels. The body can be exercised with massage and tension relief. The emotions are exercised by working on repressed emotions. Finally, the soul, which is the most difficult to reach, can be exercised with meditation or psychoeducation (‘Holistic Psychotherapy,’ 2017). These techniques can be used to treat depression, anxiety, mood disorders, stress, and traumas. Clinical holistic therapy is considered a long-term therapy.
Integrated therapy is a combination of different approaches to accommodate every person’s different needs (‘Different Approaches,’ n.d.). There are over 400 different types of therapies. Therapists choose which therapies to use based on individual need, symptoms, length of treatment, and personality of the client (‘Integrative Therapy,’ 2018). Integrated therapies can include group or systemic, body-oriented, or expressive therapy (‘Integrative Therapy,’ 2018).
Group therapy is a form of treatment where a therapist treats a group together at one time. Groups can be based on any theoretical group. Systemic therapy is designed to treat a system and its interaction patterns and dynamics. These groups can be support groups, families, or even couple therapy (‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d.).
Body-oriented therapy can range in activity but is based on the principles of somatic psychology, which involves the study of the body(‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d.). Body-oriented therapies were based on Wilhelm Reich’s theory in the 1930’s. He was the first person to bring body awareness systemically to psychoanalysis. There is a wide variety of techniques used such as sound, touch, mirroring, movement, and breath. Some examples are eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR), light therapy, hypnotherapy, and yoga. According to (s8), EMDR is a psychotherapy technique discovered in 1987 by Francine Shapiro for the use in the treatment of anxiety, stress, and trauma (‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d.). This therapy uses an eight-phase approach that includes having the patient recall traumatic events while receiving one of several types of bilateral sensory input. Light therapy is the exposure to daylight or certain special lamps for a specific amount of time every day. Hypnotherapy is used to make a change in a person by a suggestion by hypnosis. Yoga therapy is an exercised based alternative medicine which incorporates breathing exercises, stretching, imagery, and meditation (‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d.).
The expressive therapy uses the creative arts as a form of therapy and heals people through a creative outlet. Examples would be art, dance, music, writing, drama, and bibliotherapy (‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d.). Music has been used as a form of healing from as early as 400 BC, according to ‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’. Music therapy has been shown to be effective for schizophrenic patients and to treat a major depressive disorder. Dance has been used as healing rituals for fertility, birth, sickness, and death since early human history. Art therapy has been helpful to patients with Alzheimer’s and other memory diseases(‘Approaches to Psychotherapy,’ n.d.).