Southern states began to pass laws that curbed black freedom and bore resemblance to the Slave Codes. Jim Crow laws were placed mainly in the South exhibiting segregation and “black etiquette.” These laws stated how black people should live every day, This body of law institutionalized several economic, educational, and social disadvantages; Whites/Colored only Bathrooms or public amenities. De jure segregation existed mainly in the Southern states, while Northern segregation was generally de facto-patterns of housing segregation enforced by private businesses, bank lending practices/loans, and job discrimination, including discriminatory labor union practices.
“Jim Crow” was a negative expression meaning “Negro.” Most of the Jim Crow laws were not even government laws but social laws If you were colored and walking up the sidewalk you had to cross to the other sidewalk across the street if there was anybody that was white walking on the same sidewalk as you.
There were many tactics used to deter black from social and political events.
Poll taxes, literacy tests, complicated balloting processes, centralized election codes; gerrymandering were all put in place as a deterrent so black men could not vote. Knowing the black ethnicity is paid way less on average compared to the income of whites so they put taxes on voting.
During the self-help era, there was a dramatic rise in literacy among blacks thanks to education. Racial self-determination was a key part of the self-help ideology. Southern black schools began to receive money from the large educational foundations of wealthy white entrepreneurs.
White philanthropy had increased as Booker T. Washington rose to prominence.
Whites opposed outside philanthropy until it became clear that the philanthropists were not interested in promoting racial equality. Pan-Negroism promoted the exchange of ideas among black intellectuals and preserved black protest traditions.
Ida B. Wells was the most outspoken black nationalist. When she heard about three business partners that opened a rival market across from a white-owned store and then were accused and hanged for rape soon after, she protested the lynchings of the men and urged a boycott in a news column in Memphis Free Speech. Whites were angered at her outburst and destroyed the press and then ran her out of town. She had moved to New York and continued her journalist assaults on lynching, and soon she toured England and got much British press to denounce lynching as barbaric and inhumane. She was viewed as a threat in the eyes of Booker Washington when he thought this segregation period gave time to blacks to focus on themselves as a race.
To be honest many of Today’s so-called black leaders like Colin Kaepernick, J. Cole, etc, are not leaders. Ninety percent of the black leaders are well over middle and lower-class citizens and make their money through commercialism. They address problems in the black communities such as unlawful killings of blacks, incarceration, and the laws that get bent where a “white” rapist gets 6 months in prison and a Hip Hop Artists that broke his probation from when he was 18 now 30 years old by breaking a traffic violation for the entertainment of kids and gets 4-5 years in prison. These problems get addressed by everybody and there is no justice to be dished out. There is no clear leader that has the characteristics of accommodation, radical protest, and nationalism.