Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

The following sample essay on “Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia” reveals the relationship between genetic and biological factors of bipolar disorder (BpO) and schizophrenia (SzO). Research including methodology, results and discussion.

Indicating to what degree do the offspring inherit these disorders from existing patients. Dfaz-Caneja et al., (2018) are clear when expressing current knowledge on this subject by reviewing appropriate literature. As a result of this, there is a belief that the children of patients with the present disorders BpO and SzO, show more distinctive temperamental patterns with a comparison to typically developing offspring, (Dfaz-Caneja et al.

, 2018).

There are assumptions and links expressed within this study towards certain aspects of temperament, to a range of cognition skills. There is a notion that temperament is defined as being rooted from biological characteristics of development. Rothbart and Bates (1998, cited in Zenter & Shiner, 2012) presumed that temperament, forming an individuals behaviour, is a result of strong genetic and neurobiological factors, (Zenter & shiner, 2012). However, Rothbart (2011) expressed the effects of environmental factors on personality differences in children.

This idea stemmed from aspects within social learning theories.

Nougera et al (2018) published an article which stresses similar concerns for the offspring of patients with schizophrenia. This research states the high alert, for the strong genetic component and how it can affect the offspring of patients diagnosed with this disorder. Again, this research compares this assumption with a control group which consists of non- schizophrenic parents. However, Dfaz-Caneja et al., (2018) acknowledged that no previous studies have compared and assessed specifically temperamental dimensions in children with BpO, and the relationship with SzO.

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A limitation lies within the acknowledgement of the lack of research regarding temperament dimensions associated with SzO.

Nevertheless, this limitation is disregarded through the ability to highlight a gap and devise an appropriate hypothesis to broaden knowledge on the effect of Schizophrenia. A hypothesis, which claims the association of poorer adjustment and increased lifetime rates of psychopathology, will be shown through higher scores in specific temperament dimensions. Accordingly, Trochim, Donnelly and Arora (2015), stated a specific direction is seen within a one-tailed hypothesis. The hypothesis within this study uses the word higher, which indicates a specific direction and possibly a significant difference.

Methodology

In order to test this hypothesis, Dfaz-Caneja et al., (2018) chose an age range for the offspring of 6- 17-year olds to take part in this study. Although using this age range may be an advantage as the offspring are more developed, a limitation lies with this when assessing early development. Levine and Munsch (2016) explained how past research states over time, children have the tendency to maintain similar temperamental traits.

With that in mind, it is also argued that small variations may occur through development, causing some changes within an individuals temperament. There is a suggestion of certain aspects of vulnerability changing over time, the notion that individuals may exhibit more externalising traits within early childhood, (Munsch& Levine, 2016). Considering these arguments, a suggestion of using a wider age range for sampling would help thoroughly examine whether specific temperament dimensions of both disorders are present since birth.

This study was designed using a mixed method approach. Looking firstly at the main qualitative technique which may implicate results, such as direct observations. According to Coolican (2014), there are strengths and limitations of the use of direct/ naturalistic observations. Nevertheless, Dfaz-Caneja et al., (2018) may have used this approach to examine each offspring in a naturalistic setting, to gain a more accurate insight into how that individual acts within a non-controlled environment.

However, this may be a limitation when considering the possibility of certain behaviour being amplified, through the acknowledgement of being observed. Coolican (2014) states the occurrence of such limitations within past studies. Given this argument for the experimental conditions, this may have implicated small aspects of data, due to certain temperament characteristics being expressed within the observation, such as increased hyperactivity or visible augmented anxiety/shyness.

Looking solely again at the practice of direct observation, there is no indication that any consent was given by each child nor the legal guardian. According to the British Psychological Society (BPS) (2014) vulnerable populations, in this case, children should be given the opportunity to understand the nature of the study, (BPS, 2014).

As some people may not be capable of giving consent, it is the duty of the legal guardian to do so. However, throughout this study, there is no indication that any consent was given when considering observation. Along with this ethical issue, there is also an assumption of the possibility of the child becoming aware of observation, which may cause that individual stress. Again, referring to the BPS (2014) code of ethics, the welfare of participant may be hindered if stressed.

Results

Dfaz-Caneja et al, (2018), noted the presence of single- item missing values. The use of subgroup mean imputation was to eliminate chances of any lost information which may be valuable to the study. According to Little (2013), it isnt uncommon to see mean imputation within a cross-sectional study. Little (2013) states the inclusion of additional variables within imputation, to predict the missing data. When acknowledged, this could provide a strength for a study as this strategy provides a complete data set, (Enders, 2010). With that in mind, this study highlighted the inclusion of the missing values of two inpatient mothers. On the other hand, Enders (2010) emphasises that the use of mean imputation can result in reduced variability of data. This can reduce the value of the standard deviation.

Concluding thoughts from the results presented through statistical analysis, the direction of the experimental hypothesis was portrayed in the data. Dfaz-Caneja et al., (2018) expressed that the findings within the unadjusted analysis show significant lower scores within the adaptability and positive mood aspects of the research. These scores were portrayed by the BpO and SzO subgroups in comparison to the community control offspring (CcO). Looking at table two (see appendix one) provided within this study, there are significant differences which are shown through the probability scores.

The statistical figures of probability range from 0.001 to 0.007, in aspects within activity, adaptability, and mood. These figures are all under the alpha level p= 0.05, and therefore, back up the findings in which the researcher’s state was found. Given these circumstances, it is clear how the researchers were able to accept the experimental hypothesis. There is a significant difference shown between the BpO and SzO offsprings groups when considering the levels of activity and mood, in relation to the CcO, and all visible differences are in the direction previously stated by the conducted hypothesis, (Coolican, 2014). A strength for any study.

However, there are limiting factors of the data shown. Although there are several tables providing a range of data from different variables, all are not presented. Within table three (see appendix two) where the data from the logistic regression models are presented, the use of only the covariate variables are highlighted, which are of direct interest. There is a possibility that this strategy may have been used to predict outcomes from the continuous dependent variables. Giles (2002) states that ANOVA, which was used within this study, can detect a significant result using more than one covariate. This study validates this statement as all probability factors show levels below the alpha and therefore show significant results.

Discussion

Throughout the study, there is a further reference to the results as being consistent to previous studies, results which display reduced positive mood within offspring with BpO. Taking into consideration the argument on how genes can affect the likely hood of exhibiting the disorders BpO and SzO, there is now a question on more external factors which stress the influence of environmental aspects. This piece holds the assumption that environmental stressors such as the parental strategies of parents with either disorder, may further influence possible development of certain temperament traits related to psychopathology.

With that in mind, an agreeable suggestion put forward by the researchers would be to use longitudinal prospective designs within further research. This will help to test and detect vulnerable temperament dimensions in early development including social development. There is a belief that using studies through a longer period can develop a better understanding and more expert knowledge on the development of psychopathology, (Levine & Munsch, 2016).

The techniques used throughout holds validity and reliability which has been stressed through other conducted studies, like this. Dfaz-Caneja et al., (2018) stress that all results are to be considered and replicated with caution. This stems from the use of such a small and uneven sample. A suggestion of replicating the study with a much larger sample which represents the population at a wider scale. This suggestion also embeds within the previous proposal of using a longitudinal study. This will allow further researchers to thoroughly test whether biological or environmental stressors are to blame.

Although the results show significant differences in certain temperament dimensions in each offspring group. There is a still a question of to what extent parents who exhibit the disorders, influence potential temperament traits in offspring. With this question in mind, it is clear when concluding the results, that the findings indicate a correlation which shows the influence of reduced positive mood and increased activity, as indicators of the development of the disorders BpO and SzO.

In conclusion, it is apparent that Dfaz-Caneja et al, (2018) were successful in providing data which backs up the original experimental hypothesis. However, further research will aid in developing a better understanding of the discussed relationships.

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Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia. (2019, Dec 05). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/the-focus-of-this-piece-of-research-is-to-look-indicating-the-best-essay/

Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia
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