The concepts of analogy, specialization and generalization

Extremes cases may moreover be utilized as a technique in problem solving. Issue understanding can be done by alluding back to past successful encounters with comparable issues. The system of analogical issue tackling was utilized to reply primarily two questions firstly, how effortlessly is earlier information available, and secondly, how effectively can earlier information be exchanged to unused issues.

we can use many exceptional tactics to problem-solving, however you May typically work thru 4 wonderful tiers no be counted what route you take.

Understanding every step of the process will assist you hone your trouble capabilities to higher serve you alongside your ride toward a smart, conceivable solution.Identify the trouble that you are dealing with. Observe the trouble area closely to structure a distinctive picture of what’s wrong. Analyze employee behavior, workplace policies, and operating procedures. Keep your focal point on the hassle at this point, and face up to the urge to define the trouble in phrases of a solution.

For example, “We want to improve training procedures” speaks to the answer greater than the problem. “Sales documentation is inconsistent” better defines the issue.most vital degrees of problem-solving requires a cautious balance of creativity and logical thinking. Compare all viable alternatives. Analyze the money, time, staff, and resources crucial for every approach as properly as the return that you can count on from quite a number of strategies.Strong decision-making is fundamental at this stage. After cautiously considering all your options, you have to pick the fine method for your problem and stick with your choice.

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Employees who waver or battle to commit to a single plan do not make top hassle solvers because they get caught at this fundamental point in the process.Implementation is the essential peak of the problem-solving process. This is the place you draw up an action plan, share it with the fantastic personnel, and comply with through with your chosen approach.

Poundstone, employments a graphical simple. to illuminate the issue that will see coherently troublesome at a to begin with look. Concurring to his analogy, let the six people within the elevator be spoken to by six distinctive specks on a chunk of paper. These dots can be found in any design, but that no three of them ought to be on the same line. Permit a strong line between any two dabs to symbolize acquaintance between the individuals spoken to by those specks, and let a dashed line show that the individuals are outsiders. Utilizing this framework, a strong triangle speaks to three mutual acquaintances though a dashed triangle symbolizes a trio of outsiders. The main question at this occurrence is, utilizing either a solid or dashed line between any given pairs of specks, is it conceivable to put through each speck with each other dab in such a fashion that no solid triangles and no dashed triangles show up within the results?

According to Mason et al. (1985) specialization can be characterized as considering a concrete case of a theoretical issue. In other words, on the off chance that one is endeavoring to illuminate an issue that should do with the properties of parallelograms, at that point one may find it critical to begin by considering a specific parallelogram, or several particular parallelograms. On the other hand, these analysts expressed that generalization thinking includes centering on certain viewpoints common to many examples, and disregarding other aspects. They encourage explained that the method of generalizing is that of moving from a couple of occasions to making educated guesses about a wide lesson of cases. This approach is a case of specialization and is clarified well by P?lya (1954). The conventional see of the strategy in which extraordinary cases contribute to thinking is as a check on a issue arrangement where when the reply to a problem is expressed within the shape of a scientific work, the exactness of the work can be confirmed by putting in extraordinary values such as zero or interminability, for the independent variable (P?lya, 1954). In most of the circumstances, one can conclude from the physical circumstance what the reply ought to be in this case and see whether the function gives the same forecast.

there are different other methodologies that have been created for issue tackling. Be that as it may, the ones said here are among those that have gotten the foremost sum of consideration. Different writers have accentuated on the significance of a specific methodology but none of them have proposed that one particular technique is adequate to guarantee effective problem solving. In certain cases, it would be more advantageous in case one may utilize a combination of techniques in issue tackling

One kind of trouble is known as well-defined hassle which commonly has a right answer; this positive method will stop in a solution. The other kind of trouble is recognized as an Ill-defined hassle that is more frequent and does no longer have a clear described answer or solution. The Gestalt psychologist’s legal guidelines of perceptual enterprise had been involved in perception, learning, trouble fixing, and even attributes and beliefs. The Gestalt method to trouble solving is primarily based upon the foundations of the mind’s illustration of the hassle and the reorganization of the problem’s decision in the mind. Central thinking of the Gestalt method dissects a hassle and the route to solution characterized in the persons mind. answer to Gestalt’s test confirmed that the answer requires first appreciation the object and translating it into the Genius in a greater understandable form.

This reformation of the illustration of the problem is referred to as restructuring. Restructuring additionally brought the thought of insight, the abrupt awareness of the solution of a problem. This sudden attention entails discovering a crucial component that opens the doors to the resolution. Although perception does offer hassle fixing resolution, there are several limitations to hassle solving like fixation. Fixation is an individuals habit of giving attention to one factor or particular attribute of the problem that continues them fixing the trouble greater quickly. Furthermore, the principle of useful fixedness is the brain confining of the use of an object to its most acquainted functions. The textbook refers to an instance of characteristic fixedness in The candle problem to avert problem solving. Another demonstration of useful fixedness is supplied through Maiers two-string problem in which the participant’s undertaking was to tie together two strings that had been putting from the ceiling. The brains routine mistake of reasoning with functional fixation had to be overcome before the sufferers were capable to come to a conclusion via restructuring their accustomed use of the pliers and executed the solution easily. Both examples are referred to as mental sets, or a preconceived thought and addiction when attempting to tackle a problem, normally a mental set is fantastically influenced via a preceding non-public ride of what has worked in the past.

Several techniques were studied like the think-aloud protocol where members are requested to do a problem, meanwhile, task out loud to the researchers their thoughts as occurring all through the intermediate states of comprehension to solve the problem. The aim of the think-aloud protocol is to decipher the important facts and necessary thoughts leading to the solution of the problem. Often, we use analogies to clear up problems. The beginning point of this lookup is to establish the connection of transferring a journey with fixing one problem and the attribution of that trip to a different but comparable problem. The switch of trip is referred to as the analogical switch and is studied to attempt and resolve a target problem or supply trouble that share similarities with the target problem. Another method would be the analogical encoding, which demonstrates contributors applying a single principle to two different problems. Researchers in analogical encoding attempt to locate the underlying shape of the precept behind the encoding. The remaining analogy is the strategy of contingency, which makes use of negotiation to evaluate supply testimonies as a approach to educate the talent to use key structural elements to spark off a response to a quicker greater superior route of getting to the conclusion.

Compared to the common human mind, experts in specific subject possess extra expertise about their area and the employer of the information in their Genius is more without difficulty accessed when needed to work on a precise problem. The troubles and understanding are sorted based totally on structural features, such as their surface features and their deep structure. Often, professionals even get to a gradual begin on a hassle due to the fact they take additional time to recognize and formulate an approach on how to solve the particular problem.

There are two types of creativity that can come into play with trouble solving. The first being divergent thinking, is open-ended and involves a massive number of viable options except any right answer. The contrary would then be convergent thinking, the hassle with a precise solution and a right answer needing to be found. The ideas and strategies involved in creativity, and the use of creativity has very restrained statistics accessible to be studied. From the research available, proof is proven that fixation does have a giant impact on the potential to creatively solve a problem and when analogical questioning is used this constraint is lessened

Based on the case study, the problems of the case will be firstly, Helen is a student and she is so young age just 19 years old. Moreover, she is the elder from 7 of her siblings where she has some responsibilities to take care of her family. Secondly, her problem will be loving Johnny who is working at the same college where Helen study, and he is 10 years elder then her and they were planning to get married by coming year.

We can analysis this firstly by thinking what will happen if they both get together against their family. If Helen got married sure she has to concentrate in her in laws family and husband so definitely she cant manage her own family. Most probably she will lack of concentration on her studies as well. Johnny have to work hard to take care of his family and his wife. They also will be having financial issue whereby Jonny is just an IT guy and sure he wont get income that much to survive and Helen also will be financially stuck where she has to pay for her studies, families and if married she has to manage her in law family financial as well. Moreover, psychologically Helen siblings and parents will be down. Her siblings will be having a mind set where negative thought and divert them to a different pathway. Thus, parents, will be emotionally wont be strong due to the environment change where people surrounded will be commending on their family. Besides that, both of them will have conflicts after marriage in maturity level where she is too young to think about the lifestyle of husband and wife and he is the person who is ready the life this will bring them a big misunderstanding between both of them in future.

Based on this situation how we are going to use concepts analogy, specialization and generalization where a similarity may be a comparison between two not at all like things employing a shared characteristic. The reason of analogies is to unravel issues by making it simpler to get it and approach the issue by appearing how it is comparative to a common, commonplace, or less complex circumstance.


  1. Poundstone, W. (1990). Labyrinths of reason. New York: Doubleday.
  2. Mason, J., Burton, L., & Stacey, K. (1985). Thinking mathematically. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishers.
  3. P?lya, G. (1957). How to solve it: A new aspect of mathematical method. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
  4. Essays, UK. (November 2018). Strategies for Problem Solving: Theory Analysis. Retrieved from

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The concepts of analogy, specialization and generalization. (2019, Nov 26). Retrieved from

The concepts of analogy, specialization and generalization
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