RELATION OF BALL VELOCITY WITH TESTS OF EXPLOSIVE FORCE AND TESTS OF SPRINTING
Enver Tahiraj1, Abedin Bahtiri2, Martin Berisha3, Jeton Havolli2
1Strength and Conditioning coach of Soccer , Pristina, Kosova
2College Universi, Pristina, Kosova
3Ph.D Candidat, Faculty of Kineziology, Zagreb, Croatia
Soccer is one of the most popular and attractive as well as very profitable sport. Being a collective sport football is based on playing of 11 players who fulfills tasks in defensive, midfield and attacking activities. Football has evolved in many aspects, starting on technical skills of players, tactical and physical aspects and the rules of games has been changed according to other technical and tactical aspects. All these things made deep and qualitative changes in training methodology with the main aim to achieve high results.
Football game is described as a complex activity with cyclic and acyclic movements which require high level of motor abilities (Stolen et al., 2005). Regarding physiological loads football belongs to aerobic-anaerobic sport, where mixt energy processes play main role (Dujmovi?, 2000).
In football, resistance activities have very important role, where players develop activities with different intensity during 90 minutes of game and is one of the most amused games in World. Modern football is characterized with increased dynamic loads of players during the match (Tomasko et al.., 2011).
Football today is subject of many researches which are focused in players physical preparation (Zoric, 2012). During one match elite players of both gender develop in average 1200-1400 different movement activities (mainly short movement), for each 4-6 seconds (Markovi-Bradic, 2008). In same time, main players spend about 40% of the time (about 36 minutes) in hart rate zone of 95-100% (Bangsbo, 1998), resulting in need for high level of aerobic capacity and the fact that players make 50-60 starts with time difference of 2 seconds in 3-5 m distance with 30-50 balls passed at maximal speed and other 30-40 given with moderate speed with 15-25 jumping duels and 10 (Vucetic et al., 2012). In all these activities explosive force is an important factor for performing activities with acceleration of body mass, of some body parts or of an out object. Mainly it is thought in activities like: sprinting, throwing, hitting and jumping (Vragovi? and Vu?eti?, 2014). For football players maximal explosive force is very important and maintenance of explosive force as well (Miha?i? and Ujevi?) thats the reason why we choose as subject of this research.
The aim of research is relationship of ball velocity with motor test of jumping and speed type. The tests are performed on the pitch.
Twenty seven players of F.C. Prishtina, member of Kosovos football Super league, aged 18-36 years old, with body height 168-185cm and body mass 63.7-99.6 kg were tested. In this testing according to playing position there are 5 keepers, 9 defenders, 7 midfielders and 8 attacker players. Players were informed about testing procedures which were performed in the pitch. Players had 17-22 minutes for warming up. Each test was performed 3 times and the best result was taken. Measurements have taken place in the afternoon from 16-17 h where the temperature was around 17-22 0C.
Ball speed was measured with Stalker radar pro which was situated 50cm beyond the goal line. The player kicked the ball from 11m distance from goal. Sprints were measured with Microgate Witty and jumps were measured with Microgate Optojump Next.
Variable sample was divided in two groups: body height, body mass and motor tests of explosive force (high jump and long jump) kicking on goal and sprinting tests.
Table 1. Sample of variables
Variables Abbreviation Unit
Body height BH CM
Body mass BM KG
5 m sprint S5M SEC.
10 m sprint S10M SEC.
20 m sprint S20M SEC.
30 m sprint S30M SEC.
Ball velocity 11m BV11M SEC
Optojump Next cm OJNCM CM
Optojump Next cml OJNCML CM
Optojump Next stiffness media OJNSM CM
Standing long jump SLJ CM
Table 1 shows results of descriptive statistics of the sample. Average results for explosive force of low extremities type of jumping and sprinting are given. Average body height of football players is 180.64 cm, and average body mass is 76.48 kg. Average for sprinting tests are: 5 m 1.33 seconds, 10m spring 1.77 seconds, 20 sprint 3.00 seconds and 30m sprint 4.13 seconds. Average results for jumping tests are: standing high jump 39.31 cm, high jump with one step 46.24 cm and 8 successive high jumps 44.09. Average of the ball velocity kicked from 11 m 115.45 m/s. All variables are normally distributed according to the Skewnnes and Kurtosis values. Pearson correlation was performed to evaluate correlation between ball velocity and other tests.
Table 2. Descriptive Statistics
N Min Max Mean St.dev. Skewnnes Kurtosis
BH 27 168.5 189.5 180.644 4.9714 -.282 -.061
BM 27 63.7 99.6 76.481 8.3218 .776 1.052
S5M 27 .97 1.28 1.1333 .08417 -.014 -.680
S10M 27 1.57 2.04 1.7730 .12038 .442 .057
S20M 27 2.80 3.25 3.0030 .13607 .231 -1.168
S30M 27 3.79 4.66 4.1356 .19344 .746 1.029
BV11M 27 97.0 130.0 115.481 6.6643 -.519 1.400
OJNCM 27 29.7 44.7 39.315 3.5621 -.824 .627
OJNCML 27 39.5 56.0 46.241 3.7736 .618 1.060
OJNSM 27 34.6 51.7 44.093 4.0606 .001 .135
SLJ 27 221.0 271.0 247.056 11.9400 -.242 .198
Pearson correlation was used to verify relationship between ball velocity and motor tests. Regarding results from (table 2) its shown that there is statistic important correlation between ball velocity and variables: standing high jump (r=.404, p=.36) standing high jump (r=.395, p=0.41) and one step high jump (r=.427, p=.26) but there was no correlation with eight successive high jumps and with sprint variables.
S5M S10M S20M S30M OJNCM OJNCML OJNSM SLJ
Kicking velocity 11 m -.030 -.062 -.039 -.275 .395* .427* .148 .404*
.883 .758 .845 .165 .041 .026 .462 .036
Research taken with senior football players of F.C. Prishtina, member of Kosovos Super League shown that there is a statistic relation between ball velocity and motor tests that represents vertical and horizontal jump, but there was no correlation between ball velocity and variables that represent sprinting. Similar results were found in research of Spori? et al. (2007), where was confirmed relation between ball speed and standing long jump. The verified relation shows importance of explosive force of lower limbs for generating great power when kicking the ball toward the goal. Perhaps more information would have been shown when it was added analyze of isokinetic force of lower limb muscles, which was verified by Cabri et al., (1998); De Proft et al., (1998). Narici et al., have found high relationship between moment of force and maximal velocity of the ball. Importance of expressing maximal muscular force at short time as possible was verified by Newton i Kramer (1994).
Results of this research found statistic relation between ball velocity and motor tests which show jumping movement, standing high jump, standing long jump and one step high jump. But there was no relationship between ball speed and eight times high jumping as with variables of sprinting in very short distance (5m, 10m, 20m and 30m). Similar findings with our research were found in many similar researches.
1. A.I. Da Silva, L.C. Fernandes and R. Fernandez. (2011). Time motion analysis of football (soccer) referees during official matches in relation to the type of fluid consumed, Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 44: 801.
2. Stolen, T., Chamari, K., Castagna, C., i Wisloff, U. (2005). Physiology of soccer. Sports Medicine, 35(6),501-536.
3. Dujmovi?, P. (2000). ?kola nogometa. Zagreb: Zagreba?ki nogometni savez.
4. Josip Toma?ko, Franko Bari?i?, Valentin Bari?i?, Dario Ba?i?. (2011). Primjena lopte corpus u treningu za razvoj koncentracije, koordinacije i reakcije nogometa?a, Kondicijski trening, 9(2) 2011.
5. Ivan Zori?. (2012). Utjecaj vje?bi ekscentri?nih kontrakcija na snagu i jakost mi?i?a donjih ekstremitet a, i njihova uloga u kondicijskoj priprem i nogometa?a, 10. godi?nja me?unarodna konferencija kondicijska priprem a sporta?a Zagreb, zbornik radova 17. i 18. Velja?e, Str.149-155.
6. Markovi?, G. i Bradi?, A. (2008). Integralni kondicijski trening. Udruga Tjelesno vje?banje i zdravlje, str 34. Zagreb.
7. Vlatko Vu?eti?, Marko Sukre?ki, Goran Spori?, Jurica ?ango, Igor Grui?, Dario Novak, Tihomir Vidranski, Ivan Segedi, Pavle Mikuli?, Stjepan Perestegi, Ivan Drvi?. (2012). Dijagnostika specifi?nih kondicijskih sposobnosti, 10. godi?nja me?unarodna konferencija kondicijska priprema sporta?a Zagreb, 17. i 18. Velja?e, Str. 283.
8. Vatroslav Miha?i?, Branimir Ujevi?. Kondicija nogometa?a: Pojam, ciljevi i zada?e kondicijskog treninga nogometa?a, (14.01.2017), page 150.
9. Filip Vargovic, Vlatko Vu?eti?. (2014). Povezanost izmedu brzine suta u nogometu s parametrima eksplozivne snage, 12. godi?nja me?unarodna konferencija kondicijska priprema sporta?a Zagreb, 21. i 22. Velja?e, Str. 167.
10. Spori?, G., Vu?eti?, V. And Jerkovi?, M. (2007). The relationship between kicking and sprinting performance. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 6(1), 120-129.
11. Cabri, J., De Prof, E., Dufour, W., Clarys, J.P. (1998). The relationship between muscular strength and kick performance In: Reilly T, A, Davids K, Murphy W, eds Science and football. London, UK: E. And F. N. Spon, 168-93.
12. De Proft E., E., Clarys J., Bollens E., Cabri J, and Dufour W. (1998). Muscle activity in the soccer kick. In.: Reilly T, Lees A, Davids K, Murphy W, ads. Science and football. London, UK: E. And F. N. Spon, 434-440.
13. Narici, M. V., Sirtori, M., Mognoni, P. (1988). Maximum ball velocity and peak torques of hip flexor and knee extensor muscles. In: Football. London, UK: E. And F. N. Spon: 429-33.
14. Newton, R. U., W. J. Kraemer (1994). Developing explosive muscular power: implications for a mixed methods training strategy. Stregth Cond. 16(5): 20-31.