Understanding The Motivation Of People Going On A Trip

Tourist motive is seen by many authors as one of the cardinal elements in understanding tourist decision-making behavior. A sound apprehension of travel motive plays a critical function in foretelling future travel form. The large reply to the basic inquiry, “why do people go? ” has occupied the heads of tourer research workers for many old ages. Assorted methods have been employed to bring out travel motivations. The undermentioned literature will cast visible radiation on assorted theories that can be used to hold a cognition why people travel to urban finish.

Tourist motive can be defined “as the planetary integration web of biological and cultural forces which gives value and way to go picks, behavior and experience. ” ( Pearce, Morrison & A ; Rutledge, 1998 ) . Put merely, motive is a province of rousing of a thrust or demand which impels people to activity in chase of ends. Once the ends have been achieved the demand subsides and the single returns to the equilibrium-but merely briefly because new motivations arise as the last 1 is satisfied.

As cited in Seaton ( 1997 ) motive of the single individual to go, to look outside for what he can non happen inside have been mostly created by society and shaped by mundane life. Gray ‘s ( 1979 ) travel-motivation theory, poses merely two chief motivations for travel. One is the desire to travel from a known to an unknown topographic point, called in Gray ‘s theory “wanderlust” . The other motivation is what Grays called “sunlust ” . This generates a trip to a topographic point which can supply the traveller with specific installations that do non be in his or her ain topographic point of abode.

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Some of the motivations which determine their travel picks are diversion, pleasance, new experiences, cultural involvement, shopping.

Harmonizing to the ‘push ‘ and ‘pull ‘ construct, Crompton ( 1979 ) , push factors explains the desire for travel while the pull motivations have been used to explicate the existent finish choice.A Nine motives of leisure travellers were identified and classified seven as socio-psychological or push motivations and two as cultural or pull motivations. The seven push motivations were, flight from a perceived mundane environment, geographic expedition and rating of ego, relaxation, prestigiousness, arrested development, sweetening of kinship relationships, and facilitation of societal interaction. The pull motivations were freshness and instruction.

Maslow ( 1943 ) identified two motivational types: tension-reducing motivations ; arousal-seeking motivations. Harmonizing to Maslow, there are five demands organizing a hierarchy, come oning from the lower to the higher demands. At the underside are the basic demands for nutrient, H2O and air. Then, above them is the demand for safety, security, and protection. Maslow argued that if the lower demands are fulfilled the person would be motivated by demands of the following degree of the hierarchy.

Cooper et Al ( 2005 ) criticises Maslow ‘s theory stating that why and how Maslow selected the basic five demands remain ill-defined, although Page ( 2003 ) feels that it has relevancy in understanding how human action is apprehensible and predictable compared to research which argues that human behavior is basically irrational and unpredictable. Though much unfavorable judgment about Maslow ‘s theory, the touristry industry has borrowed a batch from Maslow because he provides a convenient set of containers that can be comparatively labelled and supply a utile model for understanding psychological motivational factors in touristry. Therefore, for illustration, although the evident intent of a trip may be for shopping, the underlying psychological motive may be to affect their neighbors and derive higher societal position.

Iso-Ahola ( 1982 ) says that tourers will exchange functions while on vacation, and that over clip different demands will originate. Single motive may non ever move as the finding factor for travel. If within the vacation, the initial demands are satisfied, other motives might emerge. Indeed, it is congruous with Maslow ‘s theories of demands to reason that if ab initio there is a primary demand for relaxation while on a vacation, the satisfaction of that demand will make consciousness of other demands such as geographic expedition of topographic point as a agency of geting a sense of belonging or to enable procedures of self-actualisation to take topographic point.

Dann ( 1981 ) has identified seven elements of tourer motives: travel as a response to what is missing yet desired ; finish pull in response to motivational push ; motive as phantasy ( prosecute in behavior and activities that are culturally unacceptable in their place environment like harlotry and gaming ) ; motive as classified intent ( VFRs ) ; motivational typologies ; motive and tourer experiences ; motive as auto-definition and significance ( the manner in which tourist define their state of affairss and respond to them ).

P.Pearce ( 1988 ) as cited in Ryan ( 1997 ) lists five travel motives which he calls travel calling ladder ‘ where tourers develop changing motives of relaxation, stimulation, relationship, self-esteem and development, fulfilment. In Pearce ‘s theoretical account, the motives listed can be divided into two classs. The demands may be egoistic or directed at others. Therefore, for illustration, relaxation may be a solo exercising where the holiday-maker seeks a quiet reposeful clip entirely or it can be relaxation in the company of others, jumping from the demand for external exhilaration and desire for freshness. Stimulation can be autonomous which springs from the concern for ain safety, or it can be directed toward others originating out of the concern for other ‘s safety.

Relationship can be autonomous which means giving love and fondness and keeping relationships, or it can be directed at others which means having fondness, to be with group rank. Self-esteem and development possibly autonomous like development of accomplishments, particular involvements, competency and command, or it may be directed at others like prestigiousness, glamor of going. Fulfilment is wholly autonomous as it fulfils single dreams, understands oneself more and experience interior peace and harmoniousness. There are some unfavorable judgments against Pearce ‘s travel motives. For illustration, Pearce argues that stimulation may be understood along a dimension of hazard and safety of ego or others. However, it might be argued that there is a existent and typical difference between these two motives.

Cohen ( 1972 ) as cited in Shaw & A ; Williams ( 2002 ) , draws attending to the fact that all tourers are seeking some component of freshness and unfamiliarity while, at the same clip, most besides need to retain something familiar. How tourers combine the demands for freshness with acquaintance can in bend be used to deduce a typology. Cohen distinguished tourer utilizing sociological rules into organized mass tourer, single mass tourers, adventurer and vagrant. They feel that it is non based on any empirical informations. In add-on, these groups were besides differentiated along the lines of contact with the tourer industry, with mass tourers being termed “institutionalized ” and the more individualistic tourer being regarded as non-institutionalised.

Smith ( 1977 ) provided a more elaborate discrepancy of Cohen ‘s tourer typologies. Smith ( 1977 ) identifies 7 classs of tourer who have been termed as “interactive typologies ” : adventurer, elite, off-beat, unusual, inchoate mass, mass, and charter.

Shaw & A ; Williams ( 2002 ) opines that Plog ‘s typology is based on inquiring tourers about their existent general “life styles ” or value systems, frequently utilizing perceptual information derived from interviews. Plog ‘s ( 1987 ) typology can be used to analyze tourer motives every bit good as attitudes to peculiar finishs and manners of travel. In footings of the latter, a tourer typology developed for the American Express ( 1989 ) has categorised travelers as: adventurers, fuss-budgets, dreamers, economizers and indulgers- all of whom viewed their travel experiences in different ways.

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Understanding The Motivation Of People Going On A Trip. (2017, Jul 18). Retrieved from https://paperap.com/paper-on-tourist-motivation/

Understanding The Motivation Of People Going On A Trip
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