Having developed some of the universe ‘s most unthinkable attractive forces, like a ski resort amidst a desert and an archipelago resembling the map of the Earth, Dubai, a metropolis in the United Arab Emirates, has emerged as a alone touristry finish in the past two decennaries ( Henderson, 2006 ) . Dubai is a coastal metropolis, which offers sand, sea, and Sun, with conservative Islamic and Arab traditions. Even though the rapid rise in the touristry sector has led to rapid growing of the economic system, this growing is paired with assorted environmental every bit good as societal and cultural impacts.
The undermentioned essay discusses these impacts and what the ground behind these impacts is. Subsequently, the impression of sustainable touristry is discussed and how Dubai can keep sustainability of touristry every bit good as societal, cultural, and environmental values.
A major factor in Dubai ‘s touristry growing has been the development of its major air hose, Emirates. Emirates is listed amongst the universe ‘s most epicurean air hoses ( Verdonck, 2007 ) .
All flights are via Dubai, which means one traveling by Emirates must halt in Dubai foremost. Every unit of currency spent in Dubai benefits its economic system. Although good to the economic system and touristry industry, air travel is a prima factor of air pollution.
Dubai, since the mid 1990 ‘s, has been practising “ rapid touristry focused development ” ( Rockwell, 2006 ) . This is non merely the building of hotels, but besides of state-of-the art promenades and edifices, all of which are meant to pull tourers and international investing.
The building in Dubai additions by 34 % per annum ( Heyer, 2008 ) , and is utilizing a 3rd of the universe ‘s Cranes to construct 100s of skyscrapers ( Clarke, 2004 ) , most of which can be attributed to the metropolis ‘s willingness to increase touristry. Construction once more has inauspicious environmental impacts. A batch of this building for illustration that of the thenar shaped island called The Palm Jumeirah requires a method of dredging and re-depositing where stones are collected from the underside of the sea and deposited where wanted. This unluckily has lead to the one time crystal clear Waterss to be filled with silt. Resultantly, given the suicidal nature of touristry, plunging partisans have started looking for other countries with greater visibleness in H2O ( Butler, 2005 ) .
The above mentioned method of building has besides destroyed marine life. For illustration, the Arabian Gulf ‘s 2nd most bio-diverse Marine system was handed over to the building company Nakheel to construct another thenar shaped island on. Consequently because of such Acts of the Apostless, the coral reefs and sea grass have been buried and killed under stone sedimentations. The oyster beds are known to hold been buried two inches deep. Construction companies mention that they will construct unreal constructions under H2O, but ecologists argue that these new unreal constructions will non back up the original native species of the country, but they may pull foreign, destructive species ( Butler, 2005 ) .
The touristry lead building in the sea has lead to many breaks in the moving ridge currents. The beaches of Dubai have therefore started to gnaw off. Tourism, even though indirectly, has started to bit by bit decrease one of the grounds that it exists ( Butler, 2005 ) .
Other illustrations of touristry attractive forces in Dubai include a Tiger Wood ‘s golf class, which imported 30,000 mature trees, an 820 square meter refrigerated swimming pool and an unnaturally chilled beach to maintain the sand cool ( Hickman, 2008 ) . Not to advert, Dubai, as mentioned by the United Nations, is the universe ‘s most “ water-imperilled ” country. Enormous degrees of Energy and desalinated H2O, which finally requires even more energy, have to be used to keep such attractive forces. All of Dubai ‘s edifices, such as hotels and shopping promenades, are air-conditioned which means that more electricity is needed and the emanation of nursery gases exceeds that of the universe norm greatly. Dubai ‘s emanation of nursery gases is 33.6 metric dozenss per capita, whereas the universe norm is at merely 3.7 metric dozenss per capita ( Saadeh, 2007 ) . This non merely negatively affects Dubai itself, but besides affects the remainder of the universe. A hotel in Dubai produces approximately dual the C emanations as compared to a European hotel ( eTurboNews, 2009 ) . Many conservationists worldwide can perchance reason why the other states of the universe must endure because of what is go oning in Dubai. In a United Nations clime talk, UAE ‘s curate for Environment and Water spoke of atomic power to desalt the H2O which would hold even worse affects on the environment ( Hickman, 2008 ) . Therefore one can easy construe that Dubai ‘s touristry does non merely have negative impacts on its ain environment but perchance that of the universe.
Tourism ‘s impacts in Dubai are non restricted to the environment. The occupants, merely of which a really little figure are local citizens, have besides had to travel through some major alterations in a really short period of clip. As mentioned earlier, Dubai has one the most successful air hoses in the universe, and the Dubai Airport is obviously rather busy. The airdrome is located in the chief metropolis as seen from the map below:
Beginning: Google Maps
The airdrome operates 24 hours and therefore it is easy assumable that the noise pollution is at high degree. This affects all the occupants in the environing countries.
There is a major clang between western civilization and the Islamic civilization that prevails in Dubai and its milieus. To a westerner the thought of traveling to a beach to the full clothed may look rather unpointed and hence tourers wear swimming garb at beaches. Dubai has faced some major jobs in this respect. The mean labour working category of Dubai is largely of work forces from the Indian subcontinent where it is rather uncommon to see adult females on beaches have oning Bikini. For the above mentioned grounds, work forces of the working category had started to garner at beaches to gaze at adult females and snap them. There would be occasional cases when they would forcefully experience adult females in H2O. The Dubai constabularies have about arrested 500 work forces because of this ( Fattah, 2006 ) .
Dubai ‘s western positions are non usually accepted by the conservativists of the metropolis. Regardless of that, the swayers have made a move frontward. Dubai has tried to suit western civilization which in the long-run could perchance stop in the loss of Dubai ‘s ain civilization. In the past few old ages, tardily dark parties every bit good as alcoholic drinks have become really popular and common, something which is non appreciated in the Arab civilization. Dubai has legion different sorts of cabarets and bars to offer to its tourer population ( Expat Forum, 2009 ) , which could perchance alter Dubai ‘s ain population, and would be most influential on the young person. A New Year ‘s Eve party held on The Palm island had to a great extent intoxicated people dancing on the beaches in the nude ( www.EscapeArtisit.com ) . Possibly one can state that the people of Dubai have already started to lose their cultural, spiritual, and societal duties as a direct consequence of touristry.
Sexual activity touristry has besides vastly affected Dubai. The Dubai Information Site docudrama clearly shows with a concealed camera that harlotry is merely illegal on paper and is literally supervised by jurisprudence implementing governments and besides suggests that the authorities and secret bureaus know all about it ( www.Dubai-Information-Site.com ) . One possible ground thinkable is that Dubai really wants to pull sex tourers so that money keeps pouring into the economic system, but this theory is non evidenced. In some cases Dubai has been compared with Morocco and the Philippines at sex touristry degree ( www.Dubai-information-site.com ) . Streets of Dubai are filled with easy identifiable cocottes, possibly most of these adult females are at that place to pull local clients but many besides end up pulling tourers. The more expensive cocottes work at 5 star hotels where evidently tourists besides stay, doing the being of sex touristry even more solid and credible. In an interview with a cocotte, she said “ Most of my clients are Australian, Canadian, and local work forces ” ( Robson, 2009 ) . An tremendous addition in harlotry, particularly when a big figure are tourers are the clients, puts occupants of Dubai at hazard of sexually transmitted diseases such as Syphilis and HIV.
What 1 must see is, is Dubai still a topographic point where 1 can raise kids with preexistent societal and cultural values?
What has been the chief ground for all these socio-cultural and environmental alterations? As mentioned earlier, the authorities, or swayers, because Dubai is non a democracy, want to assist the economic system by presenting tourers. Dubai took a political stance in the mid 1990 ‘s that because the oil was traveling to acquire dog-tired they should exchange their focal point towards touristry. Investings in Dubai are largely international and most of the flats in the residential skyscrapers built were sold to really rich aliens. The prince of Monaco besides bought an island in the archipelago ‘The World ‘ ( Clarke, 2006 ) . Therefore the ‘second place ‘ phenomena is besides one which helps increase touristry in Dubai, and therefore touristry impacts on Dubai even more greatly, as tourers will see once more and once more. It was in this stance that Dubai ‘s swayers besides decided to do many tourer attractive forces including the assorted hotels and bars. The Chief executive officer of Dubailand, the universe ‘s largest subject park, is known to hold said that “ we want to do Dubai Venice of the Middle East ” with streamlined H2O canals ( Heyer, 2008 ) , which once more is inordinate usage of H2O in a part where H2O is a cherished resource. It was investings in such strategies that were followed by lay waste toing environmental impacts. Not merely is the running and maintaining of such attractive forces unhealthy for the environment, but it is besides the building which greatly affects it. The authorities of Dubai has been rather grim in the building of these attractive forces, so much that the already few conservationist groups and NGOs in Dubai had to be made soundless and were non allowed to interfere at all ( Hickman, 2008 ) . It would non hold been hard hushing these groups as Dubai is non a democracy system. NGOs ‘ and conservationists ‘ merely occupation is to educate school pupils about recycling ( Hickman, 2008 ) . The building company Nakheel, responsible for the building of the ill-famed Palm Islands, the land reclaimed ‘The World ‘ and many other environmentally harmful undertakings is owned by the swayer of Dubai himself, His Highness Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Makhtoum ( Clarke, 2006 ) . Therefore we can easy state that the ground for the impacts is possibly rigorous attachment to political and economic policy. Quite late, given the 2008 economic slack, Dubai has started confronting economic jobs every bit good. In the recession, there was a considerable bead in touristry in Dubai ( Walid, 2009 ) . Unfortunately, the whole intent for which Dubai had to endure through socio-cultural and environmental impacts may be excessively volatile. Any state should ne’er be excessively dependent on any one sector of the economic system, particularly a suicidal one like touristry.
Sustainable touristry as defined by the United Nation World Tourism Organization ( UNWTO ) is ‘Tourism that takes full history of its current and future economic, societal and environmental impacts, turn toing the demands of visitants, the industry, the environment and host communities. ‘ ( Bartlett, 2007 )
First, the inauspicious effects of touristry are lessened if the growing in tourer population is comparatively slow ( Cooper et Al, 2008 ) . This was non the instance for Dubai. Dubai has seen an tremendous growing in its touristry over the past 15 old ages. Therefore the impacts on the environment and the people have been greater than they could hold been. The occupants of Dubai did non hold much clip to turn accustomed to the ways of the tourers. Like London and New York, where occupants are already accustomed to an urban manner of life with the presence of tourers ( Cooper et Al, 2008 ) , Dubai ‘s occupants are non.
Dubai has already started to implement sustainable touristry ( Mustafa, 2007 ) . A recent enterprise by the earlier mentioned Nakheel is called Blue Communities ( www.BlueCommunities.org ) . For illustration, at the Palm Island they have introduced a new air conditioning system which reduces energy use by 35 % . Such issues should non merely be addressed by one building company, but all building companies. Dubai ‘s authorities is strong plenty to implement such Torahs that will minimise the harm to the environment. Some hotels in Dubai have besides started to take the environmental issues and hence their C emanations earnestly. They have taken stairss towards diminishing their environmental costs and recognize the fiscal benefits that could be received by traveling ‘green ‘ ( eTurboNews, 2005 ) . Such enterprises can be really expensive to
Dubai can utilize the illustration of Egypt, which has similar societal and cultural values and even possibly related environmental issues. When the Red Sea started to turn as a tourer finish, the authorities took a similar attack to that of Dubai ‘s, based on building of hotels. Subsequently, they implemented direction programs and introduced a “ Sensitivity Map which rates resources in footings of their resiliency to the impacts of usage ” ( Bartlett, 2007 ) . Furthermore, Egyptian governments have started supplying inducements to be more sustainable ( Bartlett, 2007 ) . Dubai could take a similar attack.
After a instance of two British subjects holding sexual intercourse on a household beach, governments have introduced some new guidelines for occupants and tourers likewise. Now, loud music, curse, caressing, have oning skirts of inappropriate length, and even keeping custodies and embracing in populace has been banned ( www.News.com.au, 2009 ) . Alternatively of being on the utmost terminal and censoring the activities mentioned above, which are quite common in the tourers ‘ ain states, Dubai can take a similar “ encourage, non deter ” attack ( Bartlett, 2007 ) . Dubai can advert the Arab and Muslim civilization in any booklets and advertizements of the finish ; otherwise, if tourers hear about such prohibitions and restriction, they might desire to see an alternate finish. The same encouraging attack as that of Egypt can be taken towards building companies, in which fiscal assets could be provided. Similarly, Emirates Airline could go on to buy the new A-380 aircrafts as they are more environmentally friendly. Research shows that 45 % British tourers are willing to pass more on holiday if environmental amendss can be reversed, 67 % Americans think it is of import that they do non damage the finishs they visit, and 69 % Danish tourers are willing to pay more for eco-labelled hotels ( Bartlett, 2007 ) . All three states above generate high Numberss of tourers. Thus authorities functionaries in Dubai can presume that if they want to fund in environmentally friendly activities, this will potentially pull more tourers.
Dubai ‘s authorities could perchance take another measure towards sustainability. Random occupants could be drafted, at their will, in big groups to be a portion of a panel, similar to a selling house ‘s consumer panel, where they could be asked to notice on any new developments that have been thought of. This manner the normally held positions of the community will be known and because a random outlining system is used many members of the community will experience more of import and therefore less immune to alterations. The execution of such a system will be difficult and boring. It may besides rather dearly-won for the authorities.
Eco-tourism can be practiced although in a really alone manner. Eco-tourism normally trades with of course beautiful countries, but could besides perchance affect the alone civilization and traditions of a part ( Bartlett, 2007 ) . Dubai can publicize the rich Arabic traditions that prevail in the part and demo how cultural and environmental values are in the metropolis ‘s nucleus. Eco-tourism would be hard because of the ill-famed impacts on the local and planetary environment and the alterations that have already occurred in its occupants. Still, it is a really distant possibility in the long-run. If achieved, Dubai may be a possible eco-tourism finish which would ironically pull multitudes.
To accomplish sustainable touristry, the differences between the occupants and tourers must be reduced ( Cooper et Al, 2008 ) . If Dubai ‘s people were to alter and go like westerners, this would once more stop up in loss of individuality and alterations in civilization. Alternatively, skillfully designed plans for schools and likewise designed advertizements aimed at Dubai ‘s grownup population could learn them about the positive effects of touristry and adaptability. On the other manus, advertizements aimed at tourers from different states could be made cognizant of Dubai ‘s cultural and spiritual values.
In the instance of Dubai specifically, there should be purposes made at cut downing harlotry to do the societal state of affairs better. By doing police governments more efficient and taking a stance to halt human trafficking at the airdrome, so no cocottes enter.
For Dubai ‘s touristry to turn sustainably a few of the mentioned methods must be used so that the involvements of the people, tourers, and environment are satisfied, all the while the touristry industry thrives and grows. Although this is hard as there is a clear tradeoff between certain factors, for illustration building of attractive forces leads to an addition in touristry but harms the environment. Therefore Dubai ‘s touristry sector needs a skillfully devised program to pattern sustainable touristry. It besides needs the apprehension that environmental and societal systems are non two distinguishable theoretical simple systems, but are one complex existent system and that worlds are besides a portion of the environment. This system is hence ever germinating and altering with uncertainnesss and remains stable merely for a short period of clip ( Fyall et al, 2005 ) . As the system evolves, Dubai ‘s programs of sustainable touristry will besides hold to alter, because the involvements of all stakeholders are different at all times.
Dubai must affect and alter the behavior of all the stakeholders involved such as tourers, occupants, conservationists, and authorities functionaries. Merely so can sustainable touristry and development be achieved and the negative impacts of touristry reduced.