Realism, Naturalism, and the Harlem Renaissance

dates of realism era

civil war
realist literature was created during and after the…

literature that accurately portrays what is going on in society and how ordinary people are living their lives

what is going on in society, ordinary people live their lives
realism accurately portrays _____ and how _____

realist writing can be referred to as a ____ in words

environment, manners
realist writers attempted to reproduce the ____ and _____ of everyday life

created a little before realism era; very similar

_____ lit emphasizes a specific geographic region and reproduces the speech and manners of people who live there

geographic region, speech, manners
regionalist lit emphasizes a specific _____ and reproduces the _____ and _____ of people who live there

local color, setting, dialects, customs
regionalists liked _____ as well as included a specific _____ and how it influenced _____, _____ etc

occurrences, ordinary
lit trait: realist lit tells of everyday _____ and _____ people

lit trait: realist lit was _____ and the author did not get involved or give his opinion

lit trait: realist lit often discussed _____ problems

oppressive, corrupt, in conflict with the individual
lit trait: in realist lit, society is often seen as _____, _____, and _____

lit trait: realist lit was not imaginative, meaning it was not _____

familiar settings
lit trait: realist writers often used _____ settings

beautiful and threatening
lit trait: what was the realist view on nature?

lit trait: realist lit was often indifferent of the _____

good and evil
lit trait: what was the realist view on man?

abandoned, look to him for answers
lit trait: when it comes to God, realist men often feel _____ but _____

lit trait: realist lit often leaves _____ endings

lit trait: naturalist authors often looked more into the _____ of their characters

the product of realism

explain human behavior
naturalists took their focus on ordinary people and their lives a step further than realists to…

beyond our power, heredity, environment
naturalists believed that the way people behaved was _____ and was rather determined by our _____ and _____

limited choices, destiny
lit trait: naturalist characters often have _____ and have no control over their _____

triumph of human will, freedom of choice, power of outside forces, winning on their own terms
romantic writers often emphasized the possible ___ where as realist writers qualified _____ with large stipulations concerning the _____ and naturalists seem to crush human chances of _____

god, man, physical object, biology, environment, control
romantics saw man as a _____, realists saw man as just _____, and naturalists viewed man as a _____- subject to the forces of _____ and _____ that are beyond his _____

adversary, truth, common humanity
realists viewed romanticism as an _____ of _____ and _____

an extension of realism

a reaction against the restrictions inherent in the realistic emphasis on the ordinary; insisted that extraordinary is real, too

restrictions, emphasis, ordinary, extraordinary
naturalism was a reaction against the _____ inherent in the realistic _____ on the _____ and insisted that the _____ is also real

middle class
realists wrote about realities of people of the…

fringes, criminal, fallen
naturalists wrote about the realities of the _____ of society including the _____ and the _____

sordid realism
naturalism can be seen as _____ because writers wrote about the fringes of society

social darwinism
naturalism came largely from…

scientific determinism
social darwinism was aka…

the optimism of the romantics was replaced by _____ and pessimism of the realists

few american writers saw the war first hand, realistic novel had not been fully developed yet
why was there so little lit during the civil war?

The Red Badge of Courage, Stephen Crane
first great novel of the civil war, written by

writers who looked at local manners very closely and who aimed at a very minute fidelity to the common course of human life

realist writings have their roots in _____

literature that emphasizes a specific geographic setting and that reproduces the speech and manners of people who live there

Harriet Beecher Stowe, regionalist
Uncle Tom’s Cabin by _____ is an example of _____ writing

character, social environment
regionalist writers were often realistic in their depiction of speech and manners yet unrealistic in their depiction of _____ and _____

Mark Twain
best known regionalist writer

relied heavily on the growing scientific disciplines of psychology and sociology

psychology, sociology
naturalists relied heavily on the growing scientific disciplines of _____ and _____

stephen crane
best known ironist writer

stephen crane is known as an _____ writer

_____ writers juxtaposed human pretensions with the indifference of the universe

Kate Chopin
writer of The Awakening

St. Louis, MO
Chopin was born in…

Oscar Chopin
when she was 19, Chopin married _____ (creole from New Orleans)

Chopin’s first novel was published in…

repression of women in Victorian America
one of Chopin’s most controversial themes

condemned, ended, career
american critics _____ The Awakening which then _____ Chopin’s _____

it wasn’t until a generation after Chopin’s death that The Awakening was…

piety, purity, domesticity, submissiveness
4 ideals of Victorian women

An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
Ambrose Bierce wrote…

Ambrose Bierce
wrote An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge

warfare, cruel joke on humanity
Bierce’s dark vision of life focused on _____ and its _____

Bierce was born in…

Ninth Indiana Infantry
during the civil war, Bierce volunteered for the…

Mary Day
Ambrose Bierce was married to…

Ambrose Bierce had a regular column called…

The Devil’s Dictionary, irony, sardonic humor
______ was one of Bierce’s most popular writings in which he offered a collection of definitions filled with _____ and _____

deep south, civil war
Bierce’s story was set in the _____ during the _____

Stephen Crane
wrote A Mystery of Heroism

A Mystery of Heroism
Stephen Crane wrote…

Crane was considered a pioneer of _____

Crane was considered a _____ of naturalism

Maggie: A Girl of the Streets
Crane’s first significant work

one of the first novels to reveal the reality of city slums

The Red Badge of Courage
Stephen Crane wrote the first book about the civil war

Stephen Crane
The Red Badge of Courage was written by…

technique whereby the writer gives us not objective reality, but one character’s impression of that reality

Black Forest of Germany
Crane died in the…

an act in which a person ignores normal human fear and risks his or her life for something trivial, which, for the moment, seems more important than survival

technique that allows a writer to distinguish between appearances and realities

situational irony
discrepancy exists between what we expect to happen and what actually happens

verbal irony
discrepancy exists between what is said and what is meant

dramatic irony
discrepancy exists between what a character believes and what the reader knows to be true

cosmic irony
discrepancy exists between what a character aspires to and what the universal forces provide

cosmic irony
the main reason we consider Crane as a ironist rather than a naturalist is because of his use of…

often used in lit to reveal a writer’s perspective on matters that previously seemed settled

confining, free choice
characters in ironic fiction often find themselves in settings that are _____, that offer no opportunities for _____

A Man Said to the Universe
example of cosmic irony by Stephen Crane

Stephen Crane
A Man Said to the Universe written by…

Stephen Crane
The Book Of Wisdom written by…

Stephen Crane
The Wayfarer written by…

New York City
Harlem was in…

dates of Harlem Renaissance

dance, drama, sculpting, poetry, fiction, painting
types of art that flourished during Harlem Renaissance

Any Human to Another
Countee Cullen’s poem

Countee Cullen
wrote Any Human to Another

Louisville, Harlem, New York City
Countee Cullen was born in _____ but grew up in _____

New York University, Harvard
Countee Cullen attended…

joys, sorrows, attitudes
Cullen’s poetry expressed the ____ and _____ of African Americans and people’s _____ towards each other

Caroling Dusk
anthology of the best poetry by African American writers (collected by Cullen)

If We Must Die
Claude McKay’s poem

Claude McKay
wrote If We Must Die

McKay was born in…

McKay demanded _____ among races

Langston Hughes
wrote The Weary Blues

The Weary Blues
Langston Hughes’s poem

Joplin, MO
Hughes was born in…

Negro Speaks of Rivers
Hughes’s first published poem

society, autobiography
Hughes takes an in-depth view of _____ in his _____

November Cotton Flower
Jean Toomer’s poem

Jean Toomer
November Cotton Flower was written by…

mind, reconcile, transcend
Toomer proposed the power of the _____ to ______ and _____ the self and the world

Toomer lived a life divided by two _____

Jean Toomer
sought to live not as a member of any racial group

first book of fiction by an African American author to appear from a New York publisher

Jean Toomer
wrote Cane

A Black Man Talks of Reaping
Arna Bontemp’s peom

Arna Bontemps
wrote A Black Man Talks of Reaping

Alexandria, LA
Bontemps was born in…

Pacific Union College, University of Chicago
Bontemps attended…

Great Depression
as the country moved towards the _____ in the 1930s, the Harlem Renaissance era came to a close

crash of wall street
beginning of the end of the Harlem Renaissance era

Harlem Riot of 1935
underscored the radically altered nature of the people living in Harlem and officially ends Harlem Renaissance

achievement, half-century, slavery, segregation
Harlem Renaissance represents a prodigious _____ for people hardly more than a _____ removed from _____ and enmeshed in chains of _____

big achievement in arts for people just out of slavery and facing harsh segregation
significance of Harlem Renaissance

North, World War 1
a huge migration _____ after _____ is what brought African Americans into Harlem

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Realism, Naturalism, and the Harlem Renaissance. (2018, Feb 27). Retrieved from

Realism, Naturalism, and the Harlem Renaissance
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