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Psychology-Ch. 4 Sleep and Dreams Paper

Words: 3773, Pages: 13

Paper type: Essay , Subject: Psychology

Parent topic:

biological rhythms
are periodic physiological fluctuations in the body.

biological rhythms
We are unaware of most _______, such as the rise and fall of hormones and accelerated and decelerated cycles of brain activity, but they can influence our behavior.

biological rhythms
These rhythms are controlled by biological clocks, which include annual or seasonal cycles such as the migration of birds and the hibernation of bears, and 24-hour cycles such as the sleep/wake cycle and temperature changes in the human body.

Circadian Rhythms
are daily behavioral or physiological cycles.

Circadian Rhythms
involve the sleep/wake cycle, body temperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar level

Circadian Rhythms
body temperature fluctuates about 3 degrees Fahrenheit in a 24-hour day, peaking in the afternoon and reaching its lowest point between 2 A.M. and 5 A.M. EXAMPLE OF?

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
Researchers have discovered that the body monitors the change from day to night by means of the……

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
a small brain structure that uses input from the retina to synchronize its own rhythm with the daily cycle of light and dark

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
Output from the ______allows the hypothalamus to regulate daily rhythms such as temperature and hunger and the reticular formation to regulate daily rhythms of sleep and wakefulness

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
Although a number of biological clocks seem to be involved in regulating circadian rhythms, researchers have found that the _______ is the most important

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
is located in the hypothalamus. It receives information from the retina about light, which is the external stimulus that synchronizes it.

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
Output from the ____ is distributed to the rest of the hypothalamus and to the reticular formation.

circadian rhythms
Many individuals who are totally blind experience lifelong sleeping problems because their retinas cannot detect light. These people have a kind of permanent jet lag and periodic insomnia because their ______ often do not follow a 24-hour cycle

desynchronized
Biological clocks can become ___, or thrown off their regular schedules.

restoration, adaptation, growth, and memory.
The important benefits of sleep include……

deep sleep
In support of the restorative function of sleep, many of the body’s cells show increased production and reduced breakdown of proteins during …….

sleep
neuroscientists recently have argued that _____enhances synaptic connections between neurons

deep sleep
_____ coincides with the release of growth hormone in children.

stressful; stress
The lack of sleep is ____, and ____ hormones may interfere with the creation of neurons in the hippocampus, the part of the brain most associated with memory

paying attention to tasks and solving problems
When deprived of sleep, people have trouble…..

thalamus ; prefrontal cortex
Studies have shown that sleep deprivation decreased brain activity in the_____and the ______and reduced the complexity of brain activity. The tired brain must compensate by using different pathways or alternative neural networks when thinking

electrophysiological
Stages of sleep correspond to massive _____changes that occur throughout the brain as the fast, irregular, and low-amplitude electrical activity of wakefulness is replaced by the slow, regular, high-amplitude waves of deep sleep.

electroencephalograph (EEG)
Using the _______ to monitor the brain’s electrical activity, scientists have identified two stages of wakefulness and five stages of sleep.

beta and alpha
When people are awake, their EEG patterns exhibit two types of waves?

Beta waves
EEG patterns exhibit which type of wave that reflect concentration and alertness?

Beta waves
EEG patterns exhibit These waves at highest in frequency and lowest in amplitude?

Beta waves
which type of waves go up and down a great deal, but they do not have very high peaks or very low ebbs?

Beta waves
which type of wave are more desynchronous than other waves?

desynchronous
means they do not form a very consistent pattern

awake.
Inconsistent patterning makes sense given the extensive variation in sensory input and activities we experience when we are……

slow down; amplitude; synchronous
When we are relaxed but still awake, our brain waves _____, increase in _____, and become more ______, or regular.

alpha waves
The waves, associated with relaxation or drowsiness, are called?

wave patterns
The five stages of sleep are differentiated by the types of ________-detected with an EEG, and the depth of sleep varies from one stage to another

STAGE 1
Sleep Stages: WHICH STAGE? characterized by drowsy sleep.

STAGE 1
Sleep Stages: WHICH STAGE? In this stage, the person may experience sudden muscle movements called myoclonic jerks.

STAGE 1
Sleep Stages: WHICH STAGE? EEGs of individuals in this stage are characterized by theta waves, which are even slower in frequency and greater in amplitude than alpha waves.

STAGE 2
Sleep Stages: WHICH STAGE? muscle activity decreases, and the person is no longer consciously aware of the environment.

STAGE 2
Sleep Stages: WHICH STAGE? Theta waves continue but are interspersed with a defining characteristic CALLED sleep spindles

sleep spindles
These involve a sudden increase in wave frequency DURING THETA WAVES

STAGE 1 & 2
Sleep Stages: WHICH TWO STAGES? are both relatively light stages of sleep, and if people awaken during one of these stages, they often report not having been asleep at all.

stage 3 & stage 4
Sleep Stages: WHICH TWO STAGES? are characterized by delta waves, the slowest and highest-amplitude brain waves during sleep.

stage 3 & stage 4
Sleep Stages: WHICH TWO STAGES? These two stages are often referred to as delta sleep.

stage 3; stage 4
Sleep Stages: Distinguishing between THESE 2 STAGES is difficult typically stage _____ is characterized by delta waves occurring less than 50 percent of the time and _____- by delta waves occurring more than 50 percent of the time.

delta/stage 3 & stage 4
Sleep Stages: WHICH TWO STAGES? is our deepest sleep, the time when our brain waves are least like waking brain waves.

delta/stage 3 & stage 4
Sleep Stages: WHICH TWO STAGES? It is during this type of sleep that it is the most difficult to wake sleepers.

delta/stage 3 & stage 4
Sleep Stages: WHICH TWO STAGES? the stage when bed wetting (in children), sleep walking, and sleep talking occur.

delta/stage 3 & stage 4
Sleep Stages: WHICH TWO STAGES? When awakened during this stage, people usually are confused and disoriented.

stage 5
After going through stages 1-4, sleepers drift up through the sleep stages toward wakefulness. Instead of reentering stage 1, however, they enter ……….

stage 5/REM (rapid eye movement)
Sleep Stages: WHICH STAGE? a different form of sleep called REM (rapid eye movement) sleep

stage 5/REM (rapid eye movement)
Sleep Stages: WHICH STAGE? is an active stage of sleep during which dreaming occurs.

stage 5/REM (rapid eye movement)
Sleep Stages: WHICH STAGE? The EEG pattern for______sleep shows fast waves similar to those of relaxed wakefulness, and the sleeper’s eyeballs move up and down and from left to right

stage 5/REM (rapid eye movement)
Sleep Stages: WHICH STAGE? During ______sleep, your eyes move rapidly, as if following the images moving in your dreams.

non-REM sleep
Specialists refer to stages 1-4 as________ which is characterized by a lack of rapid eye movement and little dreaming.

REM
A person who is awakened during_____ sleep is more likely to report having dreamed than when awakened at any other stage

REM
Even people who claim they rarely dream frequently report dreaming when they are awakened during _____ sleep.

REM
The longer the period of _______ sleep, the more likely the person will report dreaming.

slow-wave;non-REM
Dreams also occur during ________ or ___ sleep, but the frequency of dreams in these stages is relatively low and we are less likely to remember these dreams.

REM; non-REM
Reports of dreaming by individuals awakened from ______ sleep are typically longer, more vivid, more physically active, more emotionally charged, and less related to waking life than reports by those awakened from _____sleep

REM
___-sleep also likely plays a role in memory

neurotransmitter
The five sleep stages are associated with distinct patterns of _________activity initiated in the reticular formation, the core of the brain stem.

reticular formation
In all vertebrates, the ________ plays a crucial role in sleep and arousal

reticular formation
damage to the_______ can result in coma and death.

serotonin, epinephrine, and acetylcholine
Three important neurotransmitters involved in sleep are …….

dropping
As sleep begins, the levels of neurotransmitters sent to the forebrain from the reticular formation start _____, and they continue to do so until they reach their lowest levels during the deepest sleep stage—stage 4

acetylcholine
REM sleep (stage 5) is initiated by a rise in _____, which activates the cerebral cortex while the rest of the brain remains relatively inactive.

serotonin and norepinephrine
REM sleep ends when there is a rise in ____ and ______, which increase the level of forebrain activity nearly to the awakened state

REM; falls
You are most likely to wake up just after a _____period. If you do not wake up then, the level of the neurotransmitters ______ again, and you enter another sleep cycle.

immune
Neurons that control sleep interact closely with the _____system

insomnia
the inability to sleep

insomnia
can involve a problem in falling asleep, waking up during the night, or waking up too early.

insomnia
In the United States, as many as one in five adults have THIS SLEEP DISORDER, and it is more common among women and older adults, as well as individuals who are thin, stressed, or depressed

Somnambulism
is the formal term for sleepwalking, which occurs during the deepest stages of sleep

Somnambulism
For many years, experts believed that PEOPLE WITH THIS SLEEP DISORDER were acting out their dreams. However, it takes place during stages 3 and 4, usually early in the night, when a person is unlikely to be dreaming.

nightmare
is a frightening dream that awakens a dreamer from REM sleep

nightmare
This sleep disorder content invariably involves danger—the dreamer is chased, robbed, or thrown off a cliff.

nightmare
Reported increases or worsening in THIS SLEEP DISORDER are often associated with an increase in life stressors such as the loss of a relative or a job and conflicts with others.

Night Terrors
features sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear.

Night Terrors
are accompanied by a number of physiological reactions, such as rapid heart rate and breathing, loud screams, heavy perspiration, and movement

Night Terrors
unlike nightmares, they occur during slow-wave, non-REM sleep.

Narcolepsy
involves the sudden, overpowering urge to sleep.

Narcolepsy
The urge IN THIS SLEEP DISORDER is so uncontrollable that the person may fall asleep while talking or standing up.

Narcolepsy
PEOPLE WITH THIS SLEEP DISORDER immediately enter REM sleep rather than progressing through the first four sleep stages

Narcolepsy
PEOPLE WITH THIS SLEEP DISORDER are often extremely tired during the day.

Narcolepsy
THIS SLEEP DISORDER can be triggered by extreme emotional reactions, such as surprise, laughter, excitement, or anger.

Narcolepsy
PEOPLE WITH THIS SLEEP DISORDER ofter inherit it and Treatment usually involves prescribing stimulants as well as providing counseling to discover potential causes of the excessive sleepiness

Sleep apnea
is a sleep disorder in which individuals stop breathing because the windpipe fails to open or because brain processes involved in respiration fail to work properly.

sleep apnea
PEOPLE WITH THIS SLEEP DISORDER experience numerous brief awakenings during the night so that they can breathe better, although they usually are not aware of their awakened state.

sleep apnea
During the day, PEOPLE WITH THIS SLEEP DISORDER may feel sleepy because they were deprived of sleep at night.

sleep apnea
A common sign of THIS SLEEP DISORDER is loud snoring, punctuated by silence (the apnea).

sleep apnea
THIS SLEEP DISORDER affects approximately 12 million Americans, most common among infants and adults over the age of 65 AND occurs more frequently among obese individuals, men, and individuals with large necks and recessed chins

sleep apnea
THIS SLEEP DISORDER IF GONE UNTREATED can cause high blood pressure, stroke, and sexual dysfunction. In addition, the daytime sleepiness caused by it can result in accidents, lost productivity, and relationship problems

sleep apnea
is commonly treated by weight loss programs, side sleeping, propping the head on a pillow, or wearing a device (called a CPAP for continuous positive airway pressure) that sends pressurized air through a mask that prevents the airway from collapsing.

Sigmund Freud
He believed that dreams (even nightmares) symbolize unconscious wishes and that analysis of dream symbols could uncover our hidden desires.

manifest content and its latent content.
Freud distinguished between a dream’s……

manifest content
is the dream’s surface content, which contains dream symbols that disguise the dream’s true meaning;

latent content.
is the dream’s hidden content, its unconscious—and true—meaning.

manifest content.
if a person had a dream about riding on a train and talking with a friend, the train ride would be the dream’s ____ content

manifest content.
Freud thought that this ____ content expresses a wish in disguised form.

latent content
Freud thought to get to the ____ content or true meaning of the dream, the person would have to analyze the dream images.

manifest content; latent content
the dreamer would be asked to think of all the things that come to mind when the person thinks of a train, the friend, and so forth. By following these associations to the objects in the ___ content, the ___ content of the dream could be brought to light.

cognitive theory of dreaming
proposes that we can understand dreaming by applying the same cognitive concepts we use in studying the waking mind.

cognitive theory of dreaming
This theory rests on the idea that dreams are essentially subconscious cognitive processing.

cognitive theory of dreaming
This theory states there is little or no search for the hidden, symbolic content of dreams that Freud sought. Instead, dreams are viewed as dramatizations of general life concerns that are similar to relaxed daydreams.

cognitive theory of dreaming
This theory states Even very unusual aspects of dreams, such as odd activities, strange images, or sudden scene shifts, can be understood as metaphorically related to a person’s preoccupations while awake

activation-synthesis theory
theory that states dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals generated from activity in the lower part of the brain

activation-synthesis theory
theory that states Dreams result from the brain’s attempts to find logic in random brain activity that occurs during sleep

activation-synthesis theory
this theory states that When we are awake and alert, our conscious experience tends to be driven by external stimuli, all those things we see, hear, and respond to. During sleep, conscious experience is driven by internally generated stimuli that have no apparent behavioral consequence

activation-synthesis theory
believers in this theory have suggested that neural networks in other areas of the forebrain play a significant role in dreaming. Specifically, they believe that the same regions of the forebrain that are involved in certain waking behaviors also function in particular aspects of dreaming

Biological rhythms
are the periodic physiological fluctuations in the body.

Biological rhythms
are controlled by the body’s biological clock, which includes annual or seasonal cycles, twenty-eight-day cycles, and twenty-four-hour cycles.

circadian rhythm
is a daily behavioral or physiological cycle.

circadian rhythm
include the sleep/wake cycle, body temperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels.

the suprachiasmatic nucleus
The process of the body’s changing from daytime to nighttime functioning is controlled by the…..

the suprachiasmatic nucleus
a small structure in the brain that synchronizes its own rhythm with the daily cycles of light and dusk, which is based on information from the retina.

desynchronized
Biological clocks can be ______ or put off their cycle by such things as jet travel, sometimes referred to as jet lag, but also by changing work shifts and insomnia.

daylight.
With regard to jet lag and resetting one’s biological clock, it is a good idea to spend as much time as possible in the ___

Melatonin
______ can help reduce the effects of jet lag.

sleep
There are many important benefits to______, such as its ability to restore the body, promote adaptation, aid in growth, and improve memory.

Sleep
____ is an important mechanism for survival.

Sleep
For some animals, it is safer to search for food and water when it is dark outside. For other animals, however, _____ is a time to save energy and avoid being eaten and environmental hazards like falling off a cliff they cannot see.

DEEP SLEEP
Many of the body’s cells show increased production and reduced breakdown of proteins during ___ ___.

Sleep
______ gives the neurons used while awake a time to shut down and repair themselves.

Sleep
___ is related to the consolidation, storage, and maintenance of memories.

Sleep
Lack of ____ affects attention, problem solving, and even moral judgment.

Sleep
Research has shown that extreme ____ deprivation can cause hallucinations, as well as speech and movement problems.

Sleep
According to a national survey, 63 percent of Americans ____ less than eight hours per night and 31 percent said they ____ less than seven hours a night.

Sleep deprivation
___ ____can affect decision making.

Sleep debt
is a measurable level of exhaustion from a cumulative lack of sleep.

sleeping; sleep.
According to research, adolescents_____ eight hours or less on school nights were more tired or sleepy and more cranky and irritable than those who slept more. They were also more likely to fall asleep in school, to be depressed, and to drink more caffeinated beverages than other adolescents who had adequate ____

middle adult (the forties and fifties)
Sleep patterns change for people once they enter the age range of _______. They go to bed earlier and wake up earlier.

sixties
Older adults, in their______ and older, tend to not sleep through the entire night.

electroencephalogram (EEG)
is used to monitor the brain’s electrical activity, awake and asleep.

stages of sleep
The _______ correspond to massive electrophysiological changes that occur throughout the brain as the fast, irregular, and low-amplitude electrical activity of wakefulness.

Beta waves
reflect the state of wakefulness. They are the highest in frequency, lowest in amplitude, and are more desynchronous.

Alpha waves
reflect the state of relaxation but still one of wakefulness. They slow down, increase in amplitude, and are more synchronous.

wave
The five stages of sleep are differentiated by corresponding types of _____patterns detected by EEGs.

Stage 1
WHICH STAGE? sleep is characterized by theta waves, which are slower in frequency and greater in amplitude than alpha waves. This stage is characterized by myoclonic jerks (sudden muscle movements).

Stage 2
WHICH STAGE? sleep still has theta waves but also has sleep spindles, which involve a sudden increase in wave frequency.

Stages 3 and 4
WHICH TWO STAGES? sleep are characterized by delta waves, the slowest and highest-amplitude brain waves during sleep.

stage 1; stage 5
As a person goes through sleep stages 1-4, he or she drifts back up toward wakefulness but does not reach stage ____, Instead he or she enters stage ____

REM
stands for rapid eye movement.

REM sleep
is an active stage of sleep in which dreaming occurs.

REM sleep
An EEG taken in ___ shows fast waves that resemble those of wakefulness.

age.
The amount of time people spend in REM sleep throughout the night changes as they_____

90 to 100; several
One sleep cycle—the time spent going through the stages of sleep one time—lasts about _____minutes. The sleep cycles reoccur ___ times throughout a night.

10; an hour.
The night’s first time in REM sleep lasts only about ____ minutes, but the final time in REM sleep may last about ____

reticular formation
The various sleep stages have associated with them neurotransmitters in the ______of the brain.

Serotonin, epinephrine, and acetylcholine
are the three important neurotransmitters involved in sleep.

REM sleep
A person is more likely to wake up after a period of …..

decrease; sleep cycle
IF A PERSON DOES NOT WAKE UP AFTER REM SLEEP their level of neurotransmitters starts to _____ and the person enters another ____

night ; early morning
Strokes and asthma attacks are more likely during the ____ and in the ______

Sleeplessness
is associated with obesity and heart disease.

Sleep
may help the body conserve energy and other resources that the body needs during an infection.

insomnia
is the inability to sleep.

insomnia
It can involve having trouble falling asleep, waking up during the night, or waking up early in the morning.

insomnia
Women are more likely to have trouble with THIS SLEEP DISORDER than men, probably as a result of iron deficiencies or hormonal changes.

insomnia
For short-term ____, doctors usually prescribe sleeping pills.

Long-term
For ___ sleep problems, practice good sleep hygiene: go to bed at the same time every day (even on weekends), set an alarm, avoid naps, sleep in a quiet place, and sleep in the dark.

Somnambulism
is another term for sleepwalking.

Sleepwalking
SLEEP DISORDER THAT occurs during Stage 4 sleep, the deepest phase of sleep.

Sleep talkers
THOSE WITH THIS SLEEP DISORDER are sound asleep.

nightmare
occurs in REM sleep, is defined as a frightening dream that awakens a person.

nightmare
THIS SLEEP DISORDER peak for children between the ages of three and six years.

night terror
is characterized by a sudden arousal from sleep, accompanied by an intense fear.

night terror
THIS SLEEP DISORDER peak for children between the ages of five and seven years.

Narcolepsy
is an overpowering urge to sleep.

Narcolepsy
A PERSON WITH THIS SLEEP DISORDER may fall asleep while talking or standing up.

Narcolepsy
A PERSON WITH THIS SLEEP DISORDER goes directly into REM sleep when it occurs.

Sleep Apnea
involves individuals who stop breathing during sleep.

Sleep Apnea
People with this condition wake up many times during the night so they can breathe better, but they are usually not aware of it.

unconscious
Sigmund Freud believed that dreams symbolize ____ wishes

Manifest content & Latent content
Sigmund Freud believed that Dreams carry with them…..

Manifest content
Sigmund Freud believed that The story of the dream; a description of what happened in the dream. CALLED?

Latent content
Sigmund Freud believed that The deeper or unconscious meaning of each symbol or item in the dream. CALLED?

cognitive theory of dreaming
states that dreaming can be understood by applying the same cognitive concepts used to study the waking mind.

cognitive theory of dreaming
THIS THEORY BELIEVES THAT dreaming also involves information processing, memory, and problem solving.

cognitive theory of dreaming
THIS theory point of view BELIEVES THAT dreams are a state in which a person can solve problems and think creatively.

activation-synthesis theory
states that dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals that are generated from activity in the lower part of the brain.

activation-synthesis theory
Neural networks in other areas of the forebrain play a role in dreaming. THIS THEORY IS CALLED?

About the author

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