But one of the retreat leaders who have marked Europe and a large part of the world Is Napoleon Bonaparte. To understand the Impact he had on the modern world you just have to look around, mainly in France. All the typical architecture of Paris was designed by the Baron Houseman originated by Napoleon himself and the main evidence of his legacy is the Napoleonic code which is still a fundamental text of the French law. Concerning his code Napoleon said: “My true glory is not to have won 40 battles… Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories. But… Hat will live forever is y Call Code . ” This code has Is still enforced In a quarter of the world’s Jurisdiction Including Europe, the Americas and Africa. HIS story still fascinates many people all around the world.
Description of Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte was born In Ciao on August 1 5th minion, Just one year after ten treaty AT Versailles wanly transporter Corsica Trot ten Repelled AT Genoa to France. He was born into a noble family, his father, Carlo Maria Bonaparte, was Corsican representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1777. Thanks to his family’s injections, he was admitted to the military academy of Paris where he already showed good skills to command.
His Political Career
On November 19th, 1799, Napoleon, helped by his brother Lucien Bonaparte (speaker of the Council of Five Hundred), Talleyrand, Ducks and Sissies (members of the directory), organized a coup to overthrow the constitutional government. He first intended to initiate a parliamentary takeover but due to a tactless speech he was accused to be an outlaw by the Council of Five Hundred and threaten to be imprisoned.
To rescue him, his brother, Lucien, called the guards pretending that embers of the Council are trying to stab Napoleon and turned, in fact, the coup into a military turnover. The French Consulate was then created and Napoleon together with Ducks and Sissies were elected provisional Consuls of France. During that time, Ducks totally supported Napoleon whereas Sissies did not want to let Napoleon have full powers but Napoleon maneuver in order to get the Constitution of the Year VIII voted which ensured Napoleon to be designated First Consul, the most powerful in France. Sissies was then relegated to simply President of the Senate.
As the First Consul of France, Napoleon reformed many institutions like education, the territorial organization centralizing administration, the banking system creating the Bank of France. He also increased his power by imposing the Constitution of the Year X which first article was: “The French people name and the Senate proclaims Napoleon- Bonaparte First Consul for Life . ” Because of that Napoleon had to face royalist and Jacobin plots but that will actually help him to become emperor. In fact, he proposed to the senate to become emperor to prevent the Bourbon family (former rulers of France) to have the possibility to gain the throne again and to preserve the principles of the French Revolution.
The Senate finally accepted in 1804 and Napoleon became the first emperor of France. Now Emperor, Napoleon invaded Germany and Austria to dissolute the Holy Roman Empire and, after he won the battle at Austerity in 1805 against the Russian and Austrian armies, he created the Confederation of the Rhine which he was named its Protector.
Master of War
After his training at the military academy of Paris, Napoleon was sent to serve on garrison duty in Valence as second lieutenant where he gained experience to be an army leader.
Then he was appointed artillery commander of the republican forces at the siege of Talon. During the siege, Napoleon drew a plan in order to capture a hill that would allow republican guns to dominate the city’s harbor and force the British ships to evacuate. Napoleon succeeded to capture the city that promoted him to the rank of brigadier general. In 1795, the Royalists caused an insurrection in Paris at the Utilities Palace. Napoleon was called by Barras commander of the Interior Army to cease the insurrection.
He dispersed Royalists mob “a whiff of grapeshot ” and was remoter commander of the Interior Army, replacing Barras who became member of ten Directory, plus nee was given command AT ten Army AT Italy. As ten leader AT ten Army of Italy, Napoleon was very efficient to motivate his troops and innovated in war strategy by using, for example, artillery as mobile force support to infantry attacks which helped him to win many battles like during his Italian campaign where he defeated five Austrian armies within a year. Sent by the Directory, Napoleon conquered Egypt in 1798 defeating, battles after battles, the army of the Ottoman Empire.
Later Egypt returned to the Turkish and British armies because of the bubonic plague which stroke French army after Napoleon left to return to France. It was as an emperor that Napoleon won his most famous battles. On the first anniversary of his coronation, he had his greatest victory at Austerity over the Austrian and Russian armies (two of the best armies at this time) and for this occasion, Napoleon edified the Arc De Triumphed monument in Paris. Napoleon would say about this victory: “The battle of Austerity is the finest of all I have fought.
War pet going between the French empire, the United Kingdom, Russia, Prussia and Spain. From alliance with ones and betrayal from others, Napoleon and the French Empire was still victorious during the period 1804-1812 but soon the French Empire would be surrounded with enemies including Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, Sweden, Austria, Spain and Portugal which was called the war of the Sixth Coalition. Napoleon’s fall started when he tried to invade Russia in 1812, where had success going deep in the Russian Territory but found nothing to take as Russian used their famous “scorched earth” tactics.
When he returned to France, the war of the Sixth Coalition started, Napoleon still had few victories at Dressed in 1813 but suffered a severe defeat in the battle of Leipzig. In 1814, the Coalition army captured Paris. Napoleon tried to counter attack but his Marshals especially Nee decided to mutiny and Napoleon was forced to abdicate. He then went into exile on the island Elba where he stayed until 1815. At this time, it could have been over but Napoleon figured out a way to escape from Elba, landed on the French Riviera and went to Greenbelt where he met the 5th regiment led by the marshal Nee, sent to intercept IM.
Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and shouted: “Here I am. Kill your Emperor, if you wish. ” The soldiers responded with: “Vive L ‘Emperor! ” and marched with Napoleon to Paris. Scared Louis XVIII, who took the power, fled and Napoleon regained the power for a period now called the “Hundred Days”. In that time, he rallied 200,000 soldiers to his cause but Great Britain, Russia, Netherlands and Prussia allied their forces to end his rule. In 181 5, they fought at the battle of Waterloo where Napoleon was defeated for good and captured to be sent to he island of Saint Helena, where he will die in 1821.
Charismatic Leadership Theory
This Theory was defined by the German socialist Macmillan Weber in the sass’s and developed by Robert House in 1977. Max Weber explained Charisma as “a quality of an individual, by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed supernatural, superhuman or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. These are such as are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are regarded as of divine origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader (… How the quality in question would be ultimately league Trot an tentacle, aesthetic or toner sun pollen AT blew Is naturally In I a Torrent for the purpose of definition. ” To Weber charismatic leaders can be sort out in three types:
- Charismatic domination (sport captains). Feudal domination (kings). Bureaucracy domination (Coos). Later, Robert House described charismatic leadership with four designations:
- Dominant (army leaders). Strong desire to influence others (politicians). Self confident (entrepreneurs).
Strong sense of one’s own moral values (religious leaders). More recently, in 1998, Conger defined five behaviors for charismatic leaders:- Vision and communication. Sensitivity to the environment. Sensitivity to the needs of others. Personal risk taking. Use of unconventional strategies. Charismatic leadership is very often used in difficult times to solve critical situations. Charismatic leaders are capable to get out of difficult circumstances because they are visionary; they provide a better horizon which people will see thanks to their communication skills.
They also make followers work harder simply making them feeling that they are capable and giving them confidence. Charismatic leaders inspire trust to go forward and will carry the risks. Jay Conger, in 1989, has adapted a four- step process to approach charismatic leadership. The first one is that the leader has to analyses his environment and create a vision out of it. The second step is communicating the vision by motivating followers with the use of effective vocabulary and strong arguments. For the third stage, charismatic leaders need build trust and commitment among the followers.
Subordinates must be emotionally involved in the mission and support the goals; this could be done through personal risk taking, unconventional expertise and self-sacrifice. The strengths of charismatic leadership are: Group members are willingly obedient where leaders. The ability to deal efficiently with critical situation. Lead by example providing vision, unconventional strategies and huge energy. The limitations of charismatic leadership are: Strong obedience tends to attract weak followers which lead to poor delegation. – People having charisma are relatively rare. Narcissism, lose of reality and insensitive to others. Depending on the personality of the leaders, charismatic leadership can tangentially turn into a cult of the leader unpredictable and dangerous.
The Path- Goal Theory
The Path-Goal theory was first inspired by Martin G. Evans in 1970 and developed by Robert House in 1971. House formulated that leaders can affect performance, satisfaction and motivation of group by using those means:- Offering rewards for achieving performance goals. Clarifying paths towards these goals. Removing costless to performance. To do so leaders can adopt different styles of leadership: Directive leadership where the leader has to give specific instruction to subordinates for performance. Supportive leadership, leaders need be warmth and friendly to motivate and involve followers.
- Participative leadership where leaders consult the group member and take into account their suggestions.
- Achievement- orientated leadership, the leader sets high-level performance goals and expects the best from his subordinates. The choice of the style of leadership depends on the situation.
According to House there the situational factors of the Path-Goal theory are:
- Subordinates’ personality: Locus of control. A participative leader is suitable for subordinates with internal coco of control; a directive leader is suitable for subordinates with external locus of control. Self-perceived ability. Subordinates that believe they have a high ability themselves do not like directive leadership.
- Characteristics of the environment: When a group is working on a task that has a high structure, directive leadership is redundant and less effective. When a highly formal authority system is in place, directive leadership can reduce workers’ satisfaction. When subordinates are in a team environment offering great social support, the supportive leadership style becomes less necessary.
Napoleon Leadership Analysis
Napoleon’s Charismatic leadership
Concerning the three types of Weeper’s charismatic leadership Napoleon was probably in between charismatic and feudal domination. Feudal domination, simply because he created the French Empire and charismatic because even when he lost, or he had not, his emperor status he impressed many people.
Regarding the four House’s designations of charismatic leadership, Napoleon was clearly a dominant. He was the one who conquered Italy, Germany, Spain, etc… And during all his reign he kept on trying to invade the United Kingdom and Russia. He was willing influence people to reach his goals, he convinced the Senate to set up his Empire which was obviously not in the interest of the Senate. Napoleon had confidence in himself like no other; he was not afraid to challenge two to six nations at one time and even when he was sent into exile, he returned and took the power again with a small amount of soldiers.
Even if Napoleon set up an Empire, he was a strong believer in the principles of the French Revolution and that showed that he believed hard in his values. As a general, he was an unorthodox leader using unconventional strategies. But his charisma led him to the dark side of the theory he had all the negative behavior of the theory. This was during his last years of reign, he became narcissistic and lost his sense of reality, he wanted to invade Russia even if all his Marshals advised him not to. This move cost his empire and the lives of thousands of soldiers. He did not trust anybody anymore, he sent spies to his Marshals afraid of a conspiracy.
Robert House’s Path-Goal theory helps us to understand how Napoleon succeeded to motivate and get the best out of his soldier. By instituting the “L©goon denouncer” which was a substitute for the old royalist decorations, Napoleon intended to encourage Cleveland Ana military assessments During Tattles, nee 010 not insolate to do the things that were the responsibilities of the lieutenants or the generals below him.
Throughout his reign, we can notice that Napoleon used different type of leadership relating to the Path-Goal theory. He was a directive leader as a general of the army in his early career and as the Emperor. He was a supportive leader his soldiers when he had regain the throne after his first exile. In 1805, when he decided o stop the invasion of the United Kingdom, he consulted all his Marshals to take this decision. Napoleon was very demanding to his soldiers and Marshals, he expected them to give their best on the battle field even if death is required and this was the absolute achievement-orientated leadership. Ever since Napoleon had any amount of power while he was a lieutenant or an emperor, he always wisely adapted his leadership style to the situation.
In the public opinion Napoleon is seen as a charismatic leader and looking at the Charismatic leadership theory, he was the perfect type of a leader with great harms. The theory admits that charismatic leadership useful in difficult times and when Napoleon arrived to power he transformed France from a fuzzy period post revolution to the greatest empire that the country had never known. The Path-Goal theory allows us to understand how so much people Joined his vision, even against their own interest, and why he was so convincing to politicians, to soldiers and to the people.
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