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The student conducted the experiment given, using safe lab practices, that found the polarity of two separate solvents, and it has been shown through experimental exults that the hypothesis formed in the beginning of this experiment is true. It has been deducted from this experiment that solvents which dissolve, or pick-up, water soluble inks are polar, while solvents that dissolve, or pick-up, non water soluble inks are non-polar.
Introduction In order to determine the polarity of two solvents, slime and silly putty, an experiment is being conducted that will provide data to formulate a conclusion on the matter.
This lab will answer whether or not the tested solvents are polar or non-polar, as well as whether the inks used are polar or non-polar. Information was given in the beginning of the lab explaining that only polar solvents will dissolve or pick-up polar ink, and only non-polar solvents will dissolve or pick-up non-polar solvents.
Chromatography will be used to verify conclusions made on the polarity of the inks. Background The lab provided information as the basis for the experiment. It was provided that polar solvents only pick-up or dissolve polar substances, as well as that monopole solvents only pick-up or dissolve monopole substances.
Also, in the lab introduction, the information examines covalent and ionic bonds teaching that he polarity characteristics of substances are due to their atomic structure and molecular shape.
For example: Water is a polar molecule due to the electrons being shared between the oxygen atom and the two hydrogen atoms. As the electrons are pulled close to the oxygen atom it leaves a slightly positive charge on the outside of the hydrogen atoms, while the other side of the molecule contains a slightly negative charge. The knowledge of the polarity of water is a control within this experiment.
Objective Using the knowledge of polar and non-polar molecules, we can observe the heartsickness of the effects of the experiment on the inks, and determine the polarity of the solvents. Hypothesis Knowing the composition of the Slime being mainly water, the slime will dissolve or pick-up the water soluble inks and the silly putty will pick up the non-water soluble inks. Materials and Methods Materials: (1) 250 ml Beaker 5 ml 4% Borax Solution Dry Erase Marker (1) 10 ml Graduated Cylinder (1) 100 ml Graduated Cylinder Filter Paper (Disk) Filter Paper (Square) 0. G Guar Gum Highlighter Permanent Marker 1 Popsicle Stick Silly Putty Ruler Wooden Stir Stick [email protected] Roller Pen Distilled Water Newspaper Notebook Paper Scissors Part 1: Making Slime 1. Weigh out 0. 5 g of guar gum into a 250 ml beaker. 2. Measure 50. 0 ml of distilled water into a 100 ml graduated cylinder and pour it into the 250 ml beaker that contains the guar gum. 3. Rapidly stir the mixture with a wooden stir stick for three minutes, or until the guar gum is dissolved. 4. Measure 4. 00 ml of a 4% Borax solution into a 10 ml graduated cylinder and add it to the guar gum and water. . Stir the solution until it becomes slime. This will take a few minutes. If the slime remains too runny, add an additional 1. Ml of the 4. 0% Borax solution and continue to stir until the slime is the slightly runny or gooey. 6. Once you are satisfied with the slime, pour it into your hands. Be sure not to drop any of it on to the floor. 7. Manipulate the slime in your hands. Write down observations made about how slime pours, stretches, breaks, etc. In Part 1 of the Data section. CAUTION: Slime is slippery and if dropped it can make the work area slick. . Place the slime back into the beaker and WASH YOUR HANDS. Part 2: Slime and Putty Ink Tests 1 . On a piece of notebook paper make one 20 – 25 mm long mark of each of the inks you are testing (permanent marker, highlighter, Dry Erase, and [email protected] Roller Pen). Space the marks at least one inch apart. Use a pencil to label each mark with its description. A. Water soluble inks include those in highlighters and certain pens. B. Water insoluble inks include those in a permanent pen/markers, newsprint, and a dry-erase markers. 2.
While the inks are drying, select a passage or a picture in the newspaper to test with the slime. 3. Develop a hypothesis stating whether or not you believe the slime produced in Part 1 will pick up newsprint ink. Record this hypothesis in the Post-Lab Questions section. Then, break off a small piece of slime that is 3 – 5 CM in diameter. Gently place this piece on top of the newspaper print, then carefully pick it up again. 4. Observe and record in Table 1 whether or not the ink was picked up onto the slime. 5. Break off another small piece of slime.
Once the inks from Step 1 have dried gently place the slime on top of the first spot on the notebook paper, then carefully pick it up. Repeat this for each of the inks. Observe and record which inks were picked up (dissolved) by the slime in Table 1. 6. Repeat this ink testing two more times for accuracy. 7. Hypothesize which inks the silly putty will pick up in the Part 2 of the Data section. Then, perform the ink tests with the Silly [email protected] according to the procedure outlined in Steps 5 – 6. Part 3: Chromatography of Ink Samples 1.
Use a pencil or scissors to poke a small hole in the center off piece of filter paper (see Figure 7). 2. Spot the filter paper evenly spaced approximately 2 CM from the small hole with the two insoluble inks and the two soluble inks that were used in Part 2, Step 1. 3. Obtain a h piece of filter paper. Fold the paper in half several times so that it makes a narrow wick. . Insert the wick into the hole of the spotted paper so that it is above the top of the filter paper by approximately 2 CM. 5. Fill a 250 ml beaker 3/4 full with water. 6. Set the filter paper on top of the beaker so that the bottom of the wick is in the water.
The paper should hang over the edge of the beaker with the spotted side up. 7. Allow water to travel until it is approximately 1 CM from the edge of the filter paper. Remove the filter paper from the beaker. 8. Observe which inks moved from where they were originally spotted. Record your observations in Part 3 of the Data section. In the experiment, we were given the above instructions on how to create slime. Silly putty was provided in the lab kit. A 25 CM mark was made on notebook paper using four types of ink: highlighter ink, nun-ball roller pen ink, permanent sharpie ink, and dry erase marker ink.
There was also a newspaper clip used to test the solvents on the newspaper ink as well forming the total of 5 experimental groups. The inks are the dependent variables in this experiment. The solvents were then placed on each of the five inks, three times each, to see if they picked-up or dissolved the inks. The solvents are the independent variables n this experiment. The result of whether the solvent picked or dissolved the ink was recorded. After completing this part of the test, filter paper was placed on top of a beaker filled % full with water, with a wick placed through the filter paper into the water.
Dots of the four individual inks were placed on the filter paper. The reactions of the inks, as the water traveled up the wick into the filter paper were recorded. The experiment can be explored further in the above experiment procedural steps. Results, Data, and Observation Table 1: Results of Ink Testing for Silly [email protected] Name of Ink Picked up (dissolved) Did not pick up Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Newsprint Table 1: Results of Ink Testing for Slime x The above graph illustrates the findings in the experiment. The silly putty picked-up, or dissolved, both the dry erase marker ink, and the newspaper ink.
The slime picked-up, or dissolved, the highlighter and unable roller pen ink. Neither the silly putty, nor the slime, picked-up or dissolved the permanent marker ink. When the ink was placed on the filter paper and water was placed in the beaker as the solvent, the highlighter and the roller pen ink were both dissolved and pulled toward the wick. The permanent marker and the dry erase marker both ere unaffected by the water. Discussion, Data Interpretation, and Experimental Conclusions Seeing the results in the tables above shows the polarity of both the inks and the solvents used.
Water is a polar molecule which supports the results of the chromatography as well. The information of the water solubility of the inks used was given in the beginning of this experiment, and the information was verified by the chromatography, which showed the inks that dissolved in water. Both the highlighter and the roller pen were soluble inks. Knowing this, and in knowing the properties of water, means they are, in fact polar. After seeing the slime dissolve and pick-up traces of both of these inks, it can be concluded that the slime is polar as well.
The newspaper ink, permanent marker, and dry erase marker were insoluble inks. The newspaper ink was not verified by chromatography, however, both the permanent marker ink, and the dry erase marker were; they did not move across the filter paper when water was added. In seeing that the silly putty picked up the dry erase marker ink, and the newspaper ink, it can be concluded that the silly putty is a non-polar solvent. Error was found in my experiment in seeing that the non-polar solvent did not solve or pick-up the permanent marker.