Globalization through dam building (for electricity) and tourism (for economic security), has imposed positive and negative effects on many countries and cultures. This paper focuses on tourisms impact on Jamaica and the consequences dams have had in Thailand. For both countries globalization has had both advantages and disadvantages. Tourisms Effect on Jamaica Globalization through tourism has had a significant effect on Jamaica. Originally, tourism was intended to profit the country by tourist spending.
It was believed the economy would grow from an increase in job availability.
Also, the conjecture of most Jamaicans was the hotels generated tourist spending which provided a growing economy. Unfortunately, what was intended to be the main source of income for Jamaica also became the cause of several negative circumstances. Tourism has not benefited the countries economic issues. Monies brought in are now being used to battle the increased waste disposal concerns, water shortages, and low paying jobs. Jamaicans typically work as maids and kitchen help, even as prostitutes in the tourist industry.
Sewage from these facilities often empties into the ocean which along with siltation, pesticides, overfishing, and physical destruction including anchors from cruise ships destroy coral reefs and marine life. ” (Harper, Jack . 2003). Most Jamaicans have become disillusioned with the promise of economic freedom from tourism. Conflict over the advantages and disadvantages of tourism in Jamaica has continued. Dams Effect on Thailand
Hydroelectric projects are increasing around the world in consequence to rising energy needs. These dams have had both positive and negative impacts in Thailand economically and culturally.
Hydroelectric power has provided substantial economic benefits by energy sales. One such dam built to bring hydropower to communities in Thailand was Pak Moon Dam. The dam was expected to bring other benefits to Thailand besides electricity.
For example, an increase in fish yields from stocking the reservoir, and the ncome from charging foreign neighboring countries for power. Although there were advantages for the Thailand people, for many Thai it has had more negative than positive effects. “Major Challenges in balancing the benefits of clean electricity, water storage and flood control from the dams against negative impacts. These include population displacement, obstruction to fish movements up and down the river, and changes in water and sediment flow”. (Richardson, Michael 2009). The disadvantages began to out way the advantages.
Building of Pac Moon Dam and other Dams have affected Thailand in several other adverse methods. It severely decreased fish up to 60%. “According to the Foundation for Ecological Recovery, the rivers fishing industry alone is worth up to 3 billion annually, and the existing dams are already decreasing that profit. ” (Blake, Haley 2009). Whole species became extinct. The river had 50 different rapids that flowed with river dependent fish. Riverbank vegetation, Bamboo, and mushrooms began to disappear. Liver fluke, Blood fluke, and Schistosomiasis increased due to stagnant water.
Villagers were dependent on income generated from fish, bamboo and mushrooms. Food and income deteriorated. Many Villagers moved away. Their lives and livelihood depended on the river. The people of Pac Moon Dam had already experienced the ill ecosystem change from past dams built as expressed in a letter opposing the Xayaburi dam project. “As a river of global significance we are urging the Governments of Laos and Thailand to call a stop to the destructive Xayaburi dam: Peter Jansen of both ENDS, an international NGO and member of the coalition. (Hance, Jeremy 2011).
Many Thai’s disagreed with the dams advantages and sought to challenge it. The Thailand villagers (Pak Moon villagers), determined to make changes have fought for their rights by protests. Especially protests employing traditions and customs. For example in April of 2000, “more than 3,000 people gathered their boats at the Pak Moon dam to perform Sueb Chata Maenam, and to lobby authorities to let the Moon River run free again.
Sueb Chata Maenam meats “extending a river’s life”, and it is a modem of adaption of an old ceremony which pays homage to rivers, which are considered the life blood of Thai traditional society. ” (World Rainforest Movement, 2000). Conclusion Globalization continues to wither away biological and cultural diversity as seen by Thailand battle with dam’s consequences and Jamaica’s tourism impacts. For these two cultures the disadvantages consequently out way the advantages.