The Role of Sex Education in Opposing the Effects of Pornography Agramon, Krizia Anne Enriquez, Astro Jake Galang, Gino George Ocampo, Soleandrea 4CLM Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements In English 04 (Research Methods and Application) College of Arts and Sciences San Beda College Mendiola, Manila APPROVAL SHEET
The thesis attached hereto, entitled “The Role of Sex Education in Opposing the Effects of Pornography”, prepared and submitted by Krizia Anne Agramon, Astro Jake Enriquez, Gino George Galang, and Soleandrea Ocampo, in partial fulfillment of the requirements in English 04 (Research Methods and Application) is hereby accepted.
Carissa C. Cabaysa Thesis Adviser DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers wish to extend their heartfelt gratitude to the following persons: ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS Approval Sheetp. 2 Dedicationp. 3 Acknowledgementp. Abstractp. 5 Table of Contentsp. 6-8 List of Tables and Figuresp. 9 CHAPTER I: Introductionp. Background of the Studyp. Statement of the Problemp. Significance of the Studyp. Scope and Delimitation of the Studyp. CHAPTER II: Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworkp. Review of Related Literaturep.
Sex Educationp. Philippine Sexualityp. A Brief History of Sex Education in the Philippinesp. Recent Legislation and Related Current Eventsp. Stand of Parents in Implementing Sex Educationp. Stand of the Church in Implementing Sex Educationp.
Stand of Educators inImplementing Sex Educationp. Pornographyp. Conceptual Frameworkp. Research Hypothesisp. Definition of Termsp. CHAPTER III: Methodologyp. Research Designp. Sources of Datap. Data Gathering Instrumentsp. Data Gathering Proceduresp. Data Analysis Procedurep. CHAPTER IV: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Datap. Introductionp. CHAPTER V: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendationsp. Summaryp. Conclusionp. Recommendationsp. Referencesp. Appendicesp. LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES Chapter I INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study In light of the talks and debates in 2010 about the Reproductive Health Bill and the action of the Department of Education to adopt sex education in school curricula, people have been clamoring various actions to enforce the ideals of this bill, to protest the bill itself, and prevent the implementation of sex education classes.
According to Rep. Edcel Lagman (2010) in his article in the Philippine Daily Inquirer, one of the aims of the Reproductive Health Bill is to provide sexual education.
The effect of these sex education classes on adolescent’s view of the morality of pornography is the primary concern of the research. Pornography, as far as the researchers know, is an actuation that is present in the life of adolescent males and females. Pornography is rampant in media (print and electronic), and thus gains wide audiences and adolescents are able to obtain such pornographic materials easily. Media is increasingly getting more space in the lives of our youth. Children these days learn sex on media.
Most children are already knowledgeable about sex through various print and electronic media. (Calasagsag, 1996) This finding is supported by the YAFS 3, which reported mass media as the new surrogate parent (2000 State of the Philippine Population Report 2nd Edition : PINOY YOUTH: Making Choices, Building Voices ,Commission of Population). The McCann-Erickson study (2000) found that the media has become the determining factor to what is perceived as right, wrong, and important. Among the youths from and living in the NCR are those who show highest prevalence of exposure to pornography.
Statistics reveal that 69 percent have been exposed to pornographic materials; while 49 percent have read printed pornographic literature. There has been an alarming growth in the rate of teenage pregnancies over the past years. In response to this, sex education has been implemented in schools. According to Department of Education (2010), sex education covers topics such as “reproductive systems and cycles, hygiene, pre-marital sex, teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. However, the government, through the Department of Education is taking a drastic step by introducing the sex education program to public school pupils. The sex education modules are to be pilot tested in some 79 public secondary schools and 80 elementary schools (Grades V and VI) across the country. This action has met opposition in the form of the Church which believes that sex education “promotes promiscuity among children” and that it “should strictly remain a family affair. ” The Church is the most vocal about its dissent in the implementation of the latest sex education module released by DepEd in 2006.
It is to be noted that sex education has been part of the curriculum of some Catholic schools during the past years but it does not dwell only on the human reproduction system. The opposition of the Church is not sex education per se but the contents of the latest module. Released in June 2006, Quitorio said the new module focused on reproduction and not on the totality of sexuality, “which makes a bad impression” (Sex Education Long Been Taught in Catholic schools: Prelate, Manila Sun Star). Furthermore, he said that the module advocates and promotes the use of contraceptives among the youth.
DepEd, on the other hand, maintained that the module only seeks to educate the students on sexuality and to guide them so as to prevent early pregnancy and the possibility of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) through unprotected sex. If sex education can be effective in battling the negative implications of exposure to pornography to adolescents, then as such the morality and the sacredness of the sexual intercourse will be strengthened and will redound to the benefit of the educated person.
Yet there is still a need to prove that sex education is beneficial in preventing the negative effects of exposure to pornography. There are already some private educational institutions who have included in their curricula sex education or some of its integral topics in their GMRC and Theology classes. Some of the schools which included sex education in its curricula are San Beda College – Mendiola, Manila, and U. P. Integrated School – Diliman, and Arellano University High School. However, conservatist schools such as O. B.
Montessori School have already removed sex education in their curricula after having it in their curriculum for a year, or are hesitant in including sex education in their curricula. The Arellano University has the rationale that they will train students to be effective teachers by: familiarizing them with problems relative to teaching and their solutions; providing direct and vicarious experience through in-campus and off-campus teaching; and acquainting them with the worthwhile values of the Filipino culture and the strategies and means by which these may be implemented on children and the youth.
They also have the objectives of developing students who may be future leaders not only in the academe but also in the community and the nation through: experience in curricular and extra-curricular activities; involvement and participation in organization, workshop, conferences, seminars, etc. ; contribution to national development goals, through self help and social service projects; and transmission, preservation, and enrichment of the national heritage (Arellano University website, 2010). The O. B. Montessori School has rationale of a high school student definitely equipped with a stable and strong foundation of education.
In most cases, “graduates” happily succeed in college life and adapt easily to the demands of college workload. Unlike other graduates who tend to be dependent and inhibited, Montessori students enter college with confidence, concentration, and strong values and spiritual beliefs. The third stage of development from 13-18 years is the adolescent stage when valorization of personality occurs as the individual prepares to enter adulthood by acquiring confidence. This is the period when emotion, no longer intelligence, becomes operational in his preparation for adult responsibility.
It is characterized by great physical, emotional, psychological and social transformation when self- consciousness is heightened and requires the performing arts, sports and para-military training to transform timidity to self-confidence. The adolescent Filipino is filled with creative energy and intensely seeks economic independence. The O. B. Montessori Professional High School program not only provides academic preparation for college but also training skills in business reinforced with leadership and civic consciousness.
One of the topics included in the program is sex education (O. B. Montessori website, 2010). It is assumed by the researchers that the following facts are true: First, that sex education exists in the Philippines. There are programs and topics that are directly related to sex education that are being discussed in parts of the curricula of different schools. Second, that sex education is being implemented in private educational institutions, through topics included in the institution’s curricula.
There are many private schools who have topics correlated to the ideals of sex education and the sex education per se, who have been influential in developing the mental psyche of a moral and just citizen. Third, that sex education is beneficial to Filipino teenagers. Sex education’s aim is to inform the adolescent youth about the human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, and other aspects of human sexual behavior.
Fourth, those Filipino teenagers are exposed to various media involving pornography. There are a plethora of various materials in media that promote pornography, be it either pictures, literary works or videos. Fifth, that the knowledge of pornography is prevalent among Filipino teenagers. It is a fact that almost all adolescent Filipinos know about pornography. Many of the youth have knowledge or a basic idea of what pornography is and where and how to access it. Sixth, that most parents are against it despite its current implementation and are actually keen on keeping “sexual topics” taboo.
Many of the news articles and opinions on the current legislative actions concerning the topic of sexual education have already surfaced, and mostly all of these articles are against sex education. Seventh, that sex education is perceived society as “immoral” and actually worsening the problems it is meant to solve. Since time in memorial, religion has abhorred sex education as “its teaching actually gives the desire to act on those actions that were taught in sex education classes”.
Lastly, those Filipino adolescents who have undergone sex education and are knowledgeable about pornography have used this knowledge to divert sexual activities and urges to a positive outlet. As the Filipino idea of sex education seems to be in the negative, the actual implication of the youth who have undergone sex education and have already basic knowledge about pornography is promising on the individual itself. It also harbors the idea that once a person who is educated and is knowledgeable about sexual issues, he is can distinguish what is morally correct and incorrect on how he acts.
The research paper will investigate the effectiveness of sex education programs in preventing the negative effects of exposure to pornography. Its aim is to educate and guide students and other concerned people like parents and educators. It also aims to provide useful information in relation to this topic, provide meaningful analysis of the current effects of sex education to preventing pornography, and strengthen the morality of sex as an act and as a sacred rite of passage or vocation. Statement of the Problem This research paper aims to answer the following problems: 1.
Is sex education effective in regulating the negative effects of exposure to pornography among Filipino teenagers in the Arellano University High School in 2010? 2. Does sex education strengthen their view of the morality of sex? 3. Is sex education effective in diverting sexual urges? 4. Does sex education generate curiosity among Filipino teenagers to engage in sexual intercourse or any other sexual activities? Significance of the Study The research will benefit mostly – the students, who are the main concern of the study and whose well-being is at stake due to the implementation or non-implementation of sex education.
Secondary concern of the study are the parents and educators who are entrusted with the overall responsibility of honing the Filipino youth – intellectually, morally, and spiritually through their enforcement and implementation of certain measures which will uphold the well-being of the youth. Tertiary concern of the study are the Department of Education and the Philippine society as a whole who are the primary leaders of change and pro-activity, which can or may affect the society as a whole and thus affect the youth itself. The information that this research paper will yield is primarily beneficial to the students who will know about: a. hat are the benefits of sex education they can benefit from, b. the immorality of pornography, and c. the different viewpoints of different sectors of sex education and pornography. Their being informed of sex education, its aim, its content, its implementation and its good and bad effects will consequently benefit the students. The results that this study will yield will help parents in determining the effectiveness of sex education. It would help the parents, with teachers, in formulating the best solution for issues regarding sexuality.
Also, it seeks to provide parents with a basis for critical and sound judgments regarding the issue. Relying on opinions and beliefs which are not founded on concrete evidence should not be the sole basis of parents and educators in determining whether sex education does more harm than good. They should be informed and equipped with facts in order to weigh the pros and cons of sex education. The research will help them understand the effectiveness of sex education in helping to a. reduce risk behaviors such as unprotected sex, and equip individuals to make informed decisions about their personal sexual activity, b. ontrol the body and liberation from social control, c. provide individuals with the knowledge necessary to liberate themselves from socially organized sexual oppression and to make up their own minds. It will also be helpful to administrators and educators of sex education classes and similar classes linked to sex education and its topics, to know a. if sex education curricula break down pre-existing notions of modesty and encourage acceptance of practices that those advocating this viewpoint deem immoral, such as homosexuality and premarital sex, b. nd to teach that sexual behavior outside of marriage is immoral, so their adherents feel that this morality should be taught as part of sex education. The Department of Education may also find this material useful as a reference for the improvement of sex education. This study will help them point out the weak aspects of sex education which has already been implemented in the past. Consequently, the findings could be utilized to provide them with additional information with which to compare data from the currently implemented program.
The study will help them determine what makes sex education successful or unsuccessful. Society as a whole would be able to make an informed stand based on actual data and observations. This would help them decide whether or not to support the steps taken by the government. This would help them determine whether the Church’s contention has basis. This would help society refine its current understanding of sex education that would help them cultivate updated solutions to the issues plaguing the country.
Scope and Delimitation This research paper is a descriptive research paper. The main problem to be tackled is the effectiveness of sex education to counteract the exposure of Filipino teenagers to pornography. The scope would also cover some moral issues about sex education from the viewpoint of the society of the Philippines, of the government of the Philippines, and of several religious institution, more specifically the Catholic Church, using a sample of adolescent students from Arellano University High School and O.
B. Montessori High School. The researchers would base their research through one-on-one interviews, random survey questionnaires and observation, the population of which are thirty students per class, totaling one hundred fifty (150) students in O. B. Montessori High School and forty students per class, totaling two hundred (200) students in Arellano University High School and the sample size of ninety (90) students in O. B. Montessori High School and one hundred twenty (120) students in Arellano University High School.
The participants or the respondents are those who have and have not received sex education and are knowledgeable on pornography. They are Filipino teenagers aged 14 to 18 years of age, male or female. The scope of the paper would be limited to the Arellano University High School and the O. B. Montessori High School, Greenhills Branch in the Philippines, more specifically in Metro Manila. Data gathering for this research paper will take approximately one month. Chapter II THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Review of Related Literature This chapter will provide useful information about sex education, pornography, and the status quo of the issues of the implementation of sex education in the Philippines. Also provided here are the concepts of sexuality for Filipinos, recent legislative laws and bills regarding sex education, and recent news articles and stories concerning sex education. Sex Education Prior to discussing sex education, as the prime matter, sexuality must be delineated in a broad-spectrum.
Sex education is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, and other aspects of human sexual behavior. Common avenues for sex education are parents or caregivers, school programs, and public health campaigns (Sex Education, en. wikipedia. org, 2010). It is an integral part of education in most developed countries, like the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea, India and China.
It is stressed in these countries that the idea of sexual education encompasses “education about all aspects of sexuality, including information about family planning, reproduction (fertilization, conception and development of the embryo and fetus, through to childbirth), plus information about all aspects of one’s sexuality including: body image, sexual orientation, sexual pleasure, values, decision making, communication, dating, relationships, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to avoid them, and birth control method” all that is stated above, not only focusing on the physical aspect of sex nor is that sex education only talking about the totality of the sexual intercourse as an act (Sex Education, en. wikipedia. org, 2010).
In Asia, the state of sex education programs is at various stages of development. Indonesia, Mongolia, South Korea have a systematic school policy framework for teaching about sex. Here in Southeast Asia, countries such as Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand have assessed adolescent reproductive health needs with a view to developing adolescent-specific training, messages and materials. Sex education, as a whole subject matter in the Philippines, is practically non-existent. Except for discussions of parents with their children regarding the “birds and the bees” and of theology and GMRC teachers with their students, the idea of sex education being implemented here in the Philippines is farfetched.
Sex education, as said by Guerrero, should not be imparted with all the do’s and don’ts instead proper guidelines must be strictly implemented for the child to determine his or her own responsibilities. (Sariling Paturuan, 1982) With sex education, Guerrero posits that people who are addicted to having sex education may avoid their promiscuousness by understanding the danger and other effects of it. It is unproven whether the knowledge of sex will pollute the child’s mind. Sexual ignorance would only result to indecisiveness and even wrong decisions. As such, reproductive systems and other important sexual issues and topics are taboo and always are met with opposition. It is mainly caused by our own culture’s conservatism and being traditionalists. (Georpe, 2002. Being conservative Roman Catholics, often Filipinos think of sex education as morally incompatible with the beliefs and ideals of the Catholic Church. Sexual liberalism, often caused by sex education classes makes a Filipino think that a certain individual is sexually promiscuous. While the influence of globalization became dominant, numerous Filipinos remained conservative with their sexual values. Philippine Sexuality According to Guerrero, “a part of one’s total personality is human sexuality”. It refers to the sum total of man’s animated feelings. Not only as a sexual part but as male and female. It is a life-long process commencing at birth. Basic knowledge of sex may be attained when the child grows either to manhood or womanhood (Sariiling Paturuan, 1982)
Philippine Sexuality refers to the sensuality of man as professed, expressed, and respected by the Filipino people. This encompasses sexual behavior, practices, and activities exhibited by Filipino men and women of history and of current. Filipino Sexuality seems to have been affected by education, media and even by technological advancements. But despite its immediate dispersion, legislative procedures primarily involving regulations were promulgated to grant prominence that sexual acts should happen only within the framework of marriage between a man and a woman, because this personal human expression is sturdily associated with the family unit and with the society as a whole.
As a predominantly Christian country, the Philippines considers that the only sexual behavior morally and legally acceptable and appropriate is heterosexual intercourse within a monogamous marriage, with the exception of polygamous marriage as practiced by some Filipino minority groups and by Muslim communities in the Mindanao, southern, and southwestern regions of the Philippines, as long as the men of these population are financially capable of supporting their multiple wives. Sex Education in the Philippines: A Brief History Long before the arrival of the first group of Spaniards in the Philippine islands on the shores of Cebu, under the leadership of Ferdinand Magellan, ancient native Filipinos already had their own sexual and relationship practices. One of them is the carrying out of polygamy.
Early Filipino tribal men had five or more wives, a marital ethnic norm of the archipelago at the time. In addition to this, about more than one thousand years ago, the Filipino Ifugao people of northern central Philippines already had well-established values on marriage and sexuality. Prior to 1969, sex education in the Philippines was non-existent. Instructions were limited only to discussions on pregnancy and childcare within the confines of the family unit, specifically between female members of the home. Outside the family or the home setting, available informal information – in the form of television and radio programs, illegal adult or sex publications, and the like – was imprecise, flawed, or deficient.
After the World Health Organization and the Philippine government’s introduction of programs on family planning and birth/conception control in the past years, suburban and rural Philippine communities received training in these programs, with instructions on basic biology, pregnancy, and contraception that focused on the use of birth control pills. This program was clandestinely sustained by the Roman Catholic Church to “reduce the family’s burden of child rearing because of poverty” It was only in the late 1970s when Philippine high schools and colleges began to include teachings related to public health, sexually transmitted diseases, and limited information on human reproduction and human sexuality in the curriculum for science courses, such as biology. The limitation was truncated by the Filipino tradition of not explicitly mentioning or showing images of the male and female sex organs even for educational purposes.
In 1972, DepEd already had a module for sex education aimed towards teaching sex education and population development concepts to elementary and high school students. These were integrated into the curricula of appropriate year levels. The module was adapted as a model by other Asian countries which includes Thailand, Japan and China. The 1994 sex education module was revised into “Lesson Plan of Adolescent Reproductive Health. ” It tacked premarital sex and STD. In the year 2000, a review and revision by DepEd was conducted for the purpose of adapting to the changing times. This was done together with the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines.
During the Arroyo administration in 2006, the trial run of a sex education program in Metro Manila did not prosper due to the objection of CBCP which argued that its introduction to public schools will encourage teenagers to engage in sex. (DepEd Set to Launch Sex Education in Public Schools, www. inquirer. net, 2008). Recent Legislation and Related Current Events In 2004, Rep. Lagman’s bill on Reproductive Health Bill was a hot topic, pushing for mandatory implementation of sex education among students from grade 5 to 4th year high school. Critics of Lagman, especially Dr. Junice Melgar said that “You can’t just teach and push for abstinence before marriage.
It might send a wrong signal to the youth and increase the incidence of premarital sex if you use reverse psychology. ” (Barrinuevo et al, 2004. ) In light of the recent talks and debates about the Reproductive Health Bill, people have been clamoring various actions to enforce the ideals of this bill. The Reproductive Health Bill is a conglomerate of House Bill No. 17 authored by Rep. Edcel Lagman, House Bill No. 812 authored by Rep. Janette Garin, Senate Bill No. 40 authored by Sen. Rodolfo Biazon and Senate Bill No. 43 authored by Sen. Panfilo Lacson who are members of the House of Representatives and the Senate of the 14th Congress of the Philippines (senate. gov. ph, 2010). According to Rep.
Edcel Lagman in his article in the Philippine Daily Inquirer, one of the aims of the Reproductive Health Bill is to provide sexual education (Philippine Daily Inquirer, Jan. 16, 2010). “Reproductive health education in an age-appropriate manner shall be taught by adequately trained teachers from Grade 5 to 4th year high school. As proposed in the bill, core subjects include responsible parenthood, natural and modern family planning, proscription and hazards of abortion, reproductive health and sexual rights, abstinence before marriage, and responsible sexuality. ” Moreover, “Sexuality education will neither spawn “a generation of sex maniacs” nor breed a culture of promiscuity. Age-appropriate RH education promotes correct sexual values.
It will not only instill consciousness of freedom of choice but also responsible exercise of one’s rights. The UN and countries which have youth sexuality education document its beneficial results: understanding of proper sexual values is promoted; early initiation into sexual relations is delayed; abstinence before marriage is encouraged; multiple-sex partners are [sic] avoided; and spread of sexually transmitted diseases is prevented. ” According to the DepEd, from implementing Memorandum No. 261, which integrates sex education in the curriculum for private and public schools, adopting the sex education plan will fast-track moral decay among young people who are exposed to sex at an early age. While curiosity is normal for young people, it is still the primary responsibility of the parents and families to inform their children about sex. ” (DepEd Memorandum No. 261, 2010). Discussions will focus on the science of reproduction, physical care and hygiene, correct values and the norms of interpersonal relations to avoid premarital sex and teenage pregnancy. The topics integrated into the modules will be scientific and informative and are not designed to titillate prurient interest. In Science, sex education topics will cover the reproductive system, parts of the body, reproductive cycle, and puberty. Under Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP), proper behavior among and between peers of different genders will be discussed.
In Health classes under MAPEH (Music, Arts, PE and Health), personal hygiene and reproductive health will be part of the lessons. In Heograpiya, Kasaysayan, at Sibika (HEKASI) classes, discussion will include the position of religion on premarital sex and the norms when people of opposite sex interact. Finally, in Math classes, data on issues like premarital sex, teenage pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections will be used in studying mathematical analysis and statistics. Starting this year 2010, sex education will be integrated in regular subjects including science, health, English and physical education, said Assistant Education Secretary Teresita Inciong, who is heading the project funded by the U. N. Population Fund. (Teves, Boston News. 2010)
The World Health Organization, UNICEF, and UNESCO also had worked on guidelines about sex education, with the aim of improving awareness of sexuality. They suggest for example that masturbation be discussed between 5 to 8 year old and in detail between 9 to 12 years old. (Editorial: Sex education, 2009) The Stand of the Parents in the Implementation of Sex Education As O’Brien said in his book Sex Character Education, “instructions which are formal should preferably be given privately and must in furtherance be supplemented by providing proper exercise. All the ways, by which a child can be taught, nothing compares in effectiveness with the personal example of the parents. Among all the ways of indirect instruction good literature is the most effective.
Any sex instruction which ignores the education of the emotions is considered defective and useless. Since it cannot absorb nor have deep intellectual interest, enthusiasm and proper knowledge could not be gained well. ” (1980) O’Brien continues by adding that “parents have the primary and fundamental obligation of explaining sex to their offspring. Having to neglect it means having robbed from their children an important part of their birthright. Hence, it could also lead to confusion and misconceptions that are detrimental to their psychological being. They are first to explain the meaning of sex because their child trusts them as they trust no others. ”
He posits though, “the law of nature are as clear as crystal, that parents are naturally circumstanced to talk about the given matter, only a few could fulfill this primary duty. ” Guerrero continues this thought by saying that “parents tend to be embarrassed when faced with problems related to sex lives of their children. They show much fear and anxiety over such topics and as such punish their children for acts they thought were innocent. ” (Sariling Paturuan, 1982) Guerrero then states that parents must avoid seeing sex as a way to control and suppress sexual expression. Sex education should be concentrated on providing necessary information to avoid confusion and ignorance. Parents must never give the impression that they deprive their children the right to sexual knowledge or the proper sexual activity.
Parents who are against the implementation of the sex education program launched petitions against DepEd Memo No. 261 which is “a sex-ed initiative in the Philippines supported by the U. N. ” Their argument was that “the legislation is unconstitutional as it violates the primary rights of parents to develop the moral character of their children. ” Furthermore, they argued that “it was unnecessary for children as young as nine to be taught about reproductive health” (Parents in Philippines Objecting to Sex Education Program Targeting Children, www. catholicnewsagency. com, 2010). Even parents in the U