Psychological Testing November 12, 2010 A. List of Tests for infants, young children, handicapped and Special populations SPECIFIC INDIVIDUAL ABILITY TESTS Braselton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS) The scale enables parents, health care professionals, and researchers to understand a newborn’s language, as well as individual strengths and needs in depth. The BNAS assesses various behaviors of infants until two months of age and takes about thirty minutes to administer.
This assessment evaluates four main areas, including the infants’ ability to monitor their own breathing, temperature, and other bodily systems; control their motor movements; maintain an appropriate level of consciousness, which ranges from quiet sleep to a full cry; and interact socially with parents and other caregivers. The purpose of the BNAS is to help professionals assess the infant’s pattern of response to the environment and then assist parents with strategies to build a positive relationship with their infant. Gesell Developmental Schedules (GDS)
Evaluates the physical, emotional, and behavioral development of infants and young children. The Development Schedules are a set of four timetables devised by Arnold Gesell (1880-1961) at Yale University to evaluate the physical, emotional, and behavioral development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. They describe typical behavior at specified ages in the following areas: ability to adapt; motor functioning; use of language; and social interaction. The Development Schedules are useful to pediatricians, child psychologists, and other professionals who work with children.
They also serve as the basis for evaluating a child’s performance on the Gesell tests. The Preschool Test, which is administered individually to children between the ages of 2? and 6, consists of a variety of tasks and activities. Oral sections measure language skills, attention span, and accuracy of personal knowledge. Besides talking about themselves and their families, children are asked to name animals and discuss their favorite activities. A paper-and-pencil section assesses dominance, neuromuscular development, fine motor skills, and task-appropriate behavior.
Children are asked to write their names, copy geometric figures, write numbers, and complete a drawing. A building-block section, which involves building increasingly complex structures with a set of cubes, measures fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination, and attention span. Other tasks included in the Preschool Test are repeating numbers, recognizing shapes, and discriminating among prepositions. The Gesell School Readiness Test, used for screening older children (ages 4? o 9) for placement in kindergarten through third grade, consists of the Preschool Test plus additional tasks including visual exercises, matching and drawing tests, and a labeling and naming exercise to assess right and left orientation. A child’s performance on the Gesell tests is evaluated based on the Development Schedules, and he or she is assigned an overall “development age” (DA). Although the Gesell test and schedules are widely used, critics claim that children with undiagnosed visual or other perceptual problems can be assigned disproportionately low DAs and be penalized in terms of school placement.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development – Second Edition (BSID II) Long the standard of excellence for evaluating the development of young children, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development®—Second Edition (BSID–II) offers a standardized assessment of cognitive and motor development for children ages 1 month through 42 months. BSID–II incorporates technical soundness, expanded content coverage, enhanced clinical validity, and brighter stimulus materials. It reflects current norms and allows diagnostic assessment at an earlier age to help lead to needed intervention. Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale (CIIS)
The Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale is one of the oldest infant intelligence tests, originally designed in 1950. The Cattell scale measures mental development from 3-30 months, evaluating motor control and verbalizations. Items at each level cover the preceding period of development. Motor control is assessed by a series of tasks that involve manipulating various objects, such as cubes, pencils, and pegboards. Sample items from the test (with age norms on the Cattell scale) are: lifting a cup (6 months), ringing a bell (9 months), putting a cube in a cup (11 months), and marking with a crayon (12 months).
The examiner also takes notes on the infant’s attempts to communicate. The test is untimed but usually takes 20-30 minutes. Results are reported in terms of mental age and IQ score. The Cattell scale—which has been modified based on research with the Gesell, Minnesota Preschool, and Merrill-Palmer scales—is considered an extension of the Stanford-Binet intelligence test for younger children. Together, the two tests provide a continuous developmental scale from three months to maturity. McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA)
The McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA) is a measurement device used to assess the abilities of preschool children. The results of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities produce six scale scores of verbal, perceptual-performance, quantitative, composite (general cognitive), memory, and motor. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) is an individually administered measure of cognitive ability appropriate for children aged 3 to 18.
Administrative flexibility lets you assess mental ability in ways best suited to the child’s linguistic and cultural background. It takes about 35 to 70 minutes to finish the test. Individually administered tasks that can either incorporate or exclude verbal ability GENERAL INDIVIDUAL ABILITY TESTS FOR HANDICAPPED AND SPECIAL POPULATIONS Columbia Mental Maturity Scale – Third Edition (CMMS) The Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) is an individually administered instrument designed to assess the general reasoning ability of children between the ages of 3 years and 6 months to 9 years and 11 months.
The CMMS consists of 92 pictorial and figural classification items arranged in a series of eight overlapping levels. Each of the eight levels contains between 51 and 65 items that are appropriate for a specific chronological age. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test – Third Edition (PPVT –III) The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test – Third Edition (PPVT-III) updates the PPVT of 1959 and the PPVT-R of 1981, and like them is an individually administered, un-timed, norm-referenced, wide-range test with two parallel forms. The 204 items on each form are grouped into 17 sets of 12 items of 4 black and white illustrations forming a picture plate.
The original PPVT used 300 stimulus words, 150 on each form of the test. In the development of the PPVT-III item pool, national tryouts were used to eliminate stimulus words that were biased by gender, region, race or ethnicity. The test has two parallel forms, requires no oral or written responses and no reading by the examinee. Leiter International Performance Scale –Revised (LIPS-R) Leiter-R is completely nonverbal. It does not require a spoken or written word from the examiner or the child. The easy game-like administration holds the child’s interest and is easily administered; quickly and objectively scored.
For over 50 years, the original Leiter provided a nonverbal measure of intellectual ability. The new Leiter-R consists of two nationally standardized batteries: 1) A revision of the original Visualization and Reasoning (VR) domains for measuring IQ, 2) The new Attention and Memory (AM) domains. The Leiter-R is comprised of two nationally standardized tests. The first is a revision of the original Visualization and Reasoning (VR) domains for measuring IQ. The second is the new Attention and Memory (AM) domains. Four social-emotional scales are also included.
These scales include scales for the examiner, parent, teacher and self, and provide crucial information about the child’s level of activity, attention impulse control, and other emotional characteristics. Such factors may have bearing on the child’s performance at both home and school. Administration takes between 25 and 40 minutes. Porteus Maze Test The Porteus Maze Test is a nonverbal test of performance intelligence. The Porteus Maze Test is a graded set of paper forms on which the subject traces the way from a starting point to an exit; the subject must avoid blind alleys along the way.
There are no time limits. The mazes vary in complexity from simple diamond shape for the average three-year-old to intricate labyrinths for adults. There are three sets of mazes: the original (the Vineland series), and two supplements, the Extension and the Supplement. TESTING LEARNING DISABILITEIS Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) The ITPA-3 is an effective measure of children’s spoken and written language. All of the subtests measure some aspect of language, including oral language, writing, reading, and spelling.
The content in this edition is consistent with Charles Osgood’s original communication model and also with the adaptations of that model made by Samuel Kirk, James McCarthy, and Winifred Kirk. Chief among the assumptions underlying this model are: language is an important part of a child’s development, the essential components of language are measurable, these language components can be improved through instruction, and instruction in language is relevant to success in basic school subjects, particularly reading and writing. Woodcock-Johnson III
The Woodcock-Johnson III is one of the most widely used instruments for assessing both cognitive abilities and achievement in children and adolescents. Woodcock-Johnson III: Reports, Recommendations, and Strategies is the only reference to provide valuable guidelines for preparing useful recommendations and writing effective, descriptive psychological and educational reports based on WJ III scores, tasks analysis, and error patterns. Featuring the most up-to-date information available on the WJ III, this essential resource offers an overview of the WJ III scores and interpretive information, along with a review of the clusters, and tests.
Numerous examples of diagnostic reports that depict a variety of common student learning problems are included, illustrating applications of the WJ III in both educational and clinical settings. VISIOGRAPHIC TESTS Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) The Benton Visual Retention Test (or simply Benton Test) is an individually administered test for ages 8-adult that measures visual perception and visual memory . It can also be used to help identify possible learning disabilities. The child is shown 10 designs, one at a time, and asked to reproduce each one as exactly as possible on plain paper from memory.
The test is untimed, and the results are professionally scored by form, shape, pattern, and arrangement on the paper. Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BVMGT) The Bender Gestalt Test, or the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, is a psychological assessment instrument used to evaluate visual-motor functioning and visual perception skills in both children and adults. Scores on the test are used to identify possible organic brain damage and the degree maturation of the nervous system. The Bender Gestalt was developed by psychiatrist Lauretta Bender in the late nineteenth century.
The Bender Gestalt Test is used to evaluate visual maturity, visual motor integration skills, style of responding, reaction to frustration, ability to correct mistakes, planning and organizational skills, and motivation. Copying figures requires fine motor skills, the ability to discriminate between visual stimuli, the capacity to integrate visual skills with motor skills, and the ability to shift attention from the original design to what is being drawn. Memory-for-Designs (MFD) Test
A 10-minute test of 15 designs, presented singly, was given to 70 brain-damaged patients and 70 institutional controls (mainly psychoneurotics). Impairment scores above a critical value were indicative of brain damage, but half of the brain-damaged cases were below the critical score, perhaps because the test minimizes the role of intelligence. Although not clearly detecting brain damage, the test may be useful in a battery, since it is independent of schooling and vocabulary. It measures the perceptual-motor coordination requiring only 10 minute administration.
The test can be given to individuals 8 to 60 year of age. In this test the subjects attempt to draw a briefly presented design from memory. CREATIVITY: Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) The highly reliable Torrance® Tests of Creative Thinking are the most widely used tests of their kind since testing only requires the examinee to reflect upon their life experiences. These tests invite examinees to draw and give a title to their drawings (pictures) or to write questions, reasons, consequences and different uses for objects (words).
These instruments have been used for identification of the creatively gifted and as a part of gifted matrices in states and districts in the USA, especially in multicultural settings, and for special populations around the world. Published in two equivalent forms, Forms A and B, the Figural and Verbal TTCT can be used for pre- and post testing. The Figural TTCT: Thinking Creatively with Pictures is appropriate at all levels, kindergarten through adult. It uses three picture-based exercises to assess five mental characteristics: fluency, resistance to premature closure, elaboration, abstractness of titles, and originality.
INDIVIDUAL ACHIEVEMENT TESTS: Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WART -3) Wide Range Achievement Test, 3rd ed. or WRAT-3 is a screening test that can be administered to determine if a more comprehensive achievement test is needed. Achievement tests refer to skills that individuals learn through direct instruction or intervention. The WRAT-3 measures basic skills in reading, arithmetic, and spelling. The test covers ages from five to 75 years old and takes approximately 30 minutes to administer. B. List of Tests in Education from Kindergarten, through 12th grade, entrance tests for college, graduate & post graduate.
Group Tests of Mental Abilities (Intelligence) Kuhlmann-Anderson Tests (KA) Kuhlmann-Anderson tests measure academic potential by assessing cognitive skills related to the learning process. They have proven to be valid measures of school learning ability since 1927. The KA was written by Dr. Frederick Kuhlmann and Dr. Rose G. Anderson for use in grades K-12. Administration time is 50 to 75 minutes. In order to assess a broad range of cognitive skills, eight separate subtests are administered at each of the seven KA Test levels.
Four of the subtests use items that are primarily nonverbal in nature such as problem solving, picture and number patterns, proportions and symmetry, figuring out math functions, sequences, and/or category errors. These items measure an individual’s understanding of numbers and figures. Vocabulary and reading items such as scrambled words, scrambled sentences, ordering, visual clues, antonyms, and/or classifying, are measures of verbal skills and comprise the remaining subtests at each level. The subtests vary from level to level. Henmon-Nelson Test (H-NT)
Assess key components of executive functions within verbal and spatial modalities. Comprehensively assess with nine new tests, the key components of executive functions believed to be mediated primarily by the frontal lobe. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System'” (D-KEFS) is the first nationally standardized set of tests to evaluate higher-level cognitive functions in both children and adults. The tests assess vital executive functions such as flexibility of thinking, inhibition, problem solving, planning, impulse control, concept formation, abstract thinking, and creativity in both verbal and spatial modalities.
D-KEFS’ nine stand-alone tests evaluate the following executive-function domains: Cognitive Abilities Test (COGAT) The CogAT is a test of reasoning skills. It’s not like a spelling or a math test where if you know the words or the facts you can get 100%. There is no defined curriculum for the CogAT. It is a norm-referenced test and the national average is 50th percentile. To identify students for SAGE and MERLIN programs, Issaquah School District administers advanced versions of the CogAT to all students in grade 2 and to selected students in grades 3-5.
There are three parts to the CogAT: Verbal Battery, Quantitative Battery, and Non-Verbal Battery. Verbal Battery The Verbal Battery tests a student’s vocabulary, as well as his/her comprehension of ideas, efficiency and verbal memory, and ability to discover word relationships. Statistics show a high correlation between high verbal ability and success in a variety of school subjects. Three sub-tests are administered in the verbal section. Each test has approximately 20 questions and the student is given ten minutes to complete each sub-test.
These three sub-tests comprise the verbal score. Quantitative Battery The Quantitative Battery tests the student’s quantitative reasoning and problem solving ability and provides an appraisal of the student’s general level of abstract reasoning. Non-Verbal Battery The Nonverbal Battery presents the most novel problems to students. The items on these tests use only geometric shapes and figures that have had little direct relationship to formal school instruction. The tests require no reading.
The nonverbal battery is particularly suitable for obtaining an accurate estimate of development for students who have difficulty with reading, who have limited competency in English, or who have limited opportunities. The tests in the nonverbal battery are between fifteen and twenty-five questions each and students are given ten minutes for each test. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The WAIS IQ Test is one of the oldest, most reliable tests still used today. Designed and introduced by David Wechsler in 1939, these tests measure your spatial, mathematical, and verbal aptitudes.
In 1981, David Wechsler revised the WAIS IQ scale and in 1997 he standardized his tests to make them available to all Americans and were renamed as WAIS-III. WAIS is an abbreviation of Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale and is used to test the IQ of people between the age 17 and 70. WAIS IQ tests are so popular and reliable that there are now versions for countries such as China, Spain and Australia. WAIS IQ tests have a verbal and a performance scale of measurement. The verbal scale measures six verbal capabilities and the performance test measures five performance aptitudes.
The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) is an intelligence test designed for children ages 2 years 6 months to 7 years 3 months developed by David Wechsler in 1967. It is a descendent of the earlier Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children tests. It has since been revised twice, in 1989 and 2002. The current revision, WPPSI–III, is published by Harcourt Assessment.
It provides subtest and composite scores that represent intellectual functioning in verbal and performance cognitive domains, as well as providing a composite score that represents a child’s general intellectual ability (i. e. , Full Scale IQ). The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth edition (WISC-IV) is among the most widely used children’s intellectual ability assessment today. There are 10 required subtests (5 are supplementary) that yield a Full Scale
IQ score and four Composite scores that are; Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed. The Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning Composites are very good indicators of giftedness (apparently Working Memory and Processing Speed are not). The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) SAT is a test given to young high school students with a desire to attend college after receiving their high school diploma. The test is administered by the College Board, a national, nonprofit association ‘dedicated to preparing, inspiring, and connecting students to college and opportunity’.
The College Board was founded in 1900 and now boasts more than 3,800 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations in their membership. The College Board helps over three million students in 22,000 high schools connect with 3,500 colleges through their services every year. The SAT covers many areas of academic skills including math aptitude, writing and reading skills. Your scores are then tallied and made available to you for submission to the college or university of your choice. Miller Analogies Test The Miller Analogies Test (MAT) published by Harcourt Assessment, Inc. , measures analytic ability.
The candidate must solve problems presented in the form of analogies. Analogies are relationships. The MAT tests the ability to recognize relationships between concepts, English language facility, and general knowledge. A basic knowledge of the natural sciences, social sciences, mathematics, and subjects in the liberal arts is required to write the test successfully. The Miller Analogies Test is composed of 120 questions. One-hundred of these questions count toward the test score, and 20 are experimental questions. These experimental questions are being tested for use on future versions of the test.
The candidate cannot opt out of answering these questions, however. The experimental questions are interspersed with the test questions, and the candidate has no way of knowing which are questions will count towards his or her score. The candidate is not advised to guess at which questions will count. College Entrance Tests SAT Reasoning Test The SAT Reasoning Test, formerly called the Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test, is a type of standardized test frequently used by colleges and universities in the United States to aid in the selection of incoming students.
In the U. S. , the SAT is administered by the private College Board, and is developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). Cooperative School and College Ability Tests School and College Ability Test School and College Ability Test (SCAT) which is developed by Educational Testing Service (the company that administers the SAT) as a talent search achievement test for grades 2-6. The test given is two-to-three grades higher than normally given to students this age. The test measures verbal and mathematical reasoning ability.
Many world famous talent search programs like: Johns Hopkins University CTY (Center for Talented Youth); Stanford University EPGY (Education Programs for Gifted Youth); Northwest University Center for Talent Development use SCAT to identify and qualify the talented youth for their programs. The American College Test The ACT is a widely used college admission standardized test. It has four mandatory subject tests: English, Reading, Mathematics, and Science. There is also an optional Writing test which some colleges require. Metropolitan Achievement Tests
Achievement tests that assess general language skills, arithmetic skills, and reading comprehension. The Metropolitan Achievement Tests feature a battery of group-administered achievement tests that assess general language and arithmetic skills, and reading comprehension. Results are often given as grade equivalents (such as Instructional Reading Level, or IRL, which indicates the optimal reading level at which a student can learn). The tests are administered at all grade levels, KI 2, and can last from 1-? hours (kindergarten) to over four hours for grades 6-12.
The complete assessment battery covers five disciplines: reading, mathematics, language (i. e. writing), science, and social studies. The reading test includes a vocabulary component and a comprehension section consisting of passages followed by multiple-choice questions. The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) SAT is a test given to young high school students with a desire to attend college after receiving their high school diploma. The test is administered by the College Board, a national, nonprofit association ‘dedicated to preparing, inspiring, and connecting students to college and opportunity’.
The College Board was founded in 1900 and now boasts more than 3,800 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations in their membership. The College Board helps over three million students in 22,000 high schools connect with 3,500 colleges through their services every year. The SAT covers many areas of academic skills including math aptitude, writing and reading skills. Your scores are then tallied and made available to you for submission to the college or university of your choice. GRADUATE AND PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL ENTRANCE TESTS
Graduate Record Examination Aptitude Test (GRE) The GRE measures a variety of skills that are thought to predict success in graduate school across a wide variety of disciplines. Actually, there are several GRE tests. Most often when an applicant, professor, or admissions director mentions the GRE, he or she is referring to the GRE General Test. Depending upon your discipline, you may be required to take a GRE Subject Test or the GRE Written Test in addition to the GRE General Test. The GRE General Test measures the skills that you’ve acquired over the high school and college years.
It is an aptitude test because it is meant to measure your potential to succeed in graduate school. While the GRE is only one of several criteria that graduate schools use to evaluate your application, it is one of the most important. This is particularly true if your college GPA is not as high as you’d like. Exceptional GRE scores can open up new opportunities for grad school. The GRE General Test contains sections that measure verbal, quantitative, and analytical writing skills. Miller analogies Test A second major graduate-school entrance test is the Miller Analogies Test. ike the Bre; the Miller Analogies Test is designed to measure scholastic aptitudes for graduate studies. How ever, unlike the BRE, the Miller Analogies Test is strictly verbal. In 60 minutes, the student must discern logical relationships for 120 varied analogy problems, including the most difficult items found on any test. How ever, the most important factors appear to be the ability to see relationships and knowledge of the various ways analogies can be formed (by sound, number, similarities, differences, and so forth. The Law School Admission Test The LSAT is designed to measure skills that are considered essential for success in law school: the reading and comprehension of complex texts with accuracy and insight; the organization and management of information and the ability to draw reasonable inferences from it; the ability to think critically; and the analysis and evaluation of the reasoning and arguments of others. The test consists of five 35-minute sections of multiple-choice questions. Four of the five sections contribute to the test taker’s score.
The unscored section, commonly referred to as the variable section, typically is used to pretest new test questions or to preequate new test forms. The placement of this section will vary. A 35-minute writing sample is administered at the end of the test. LSAC does not score the writing sample, but copies of the writing sample are sent to all law schools to which you apply. NONBERBAL GROUP ABILITY TESTS Raven Progressive Matrices Raven’s Progressive Matrices (also Raven Progressive Matrices) are widely used non-verbal intelligence tests.
In each test item, one is asked to find the missing pattern in a series. Each set of items gets progressively harder, requiring greater cognitive capacity to encode and analyze. The test is considered by many intelligence experts to be one of the most g-loaded in existence. They are offered in three different forms for different ability levels, and for age ranges from five through adult: Colored Progressed Matrices (younger children and special groups), Standard Progressive Matrices (average 6 to 80 year olds), and advanced Progressive Matrices (above average adolescents & adults).
Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (G-HDT) Assesses intelligence without relying on verbal ability. The Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test is assumed to assess intelligence without relying on verbal ability. It is administered individually or in groups to children aged 3-15 and consists of Draw-a-Man and Draw-a-Woman Tests and an optional Self-Drawing Test. (The Draw-a-Person Test, which consists of the same tasks, is a separate test with a different scoring system and is available in two different versions, either as a psychological test for emotional disorders (SPED) or a measure of mental ability (QSS).
In contrast, the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test is used only as an intelligence test. ) The Goodenough-Harris test is untimed but usually takes about 15 minutes. For all subtests, the child is asked specifically to draw the entire body rather than just the head and shoulders. He or she can erase and start over and, when the test is given individually, talk to the examiner about any of the drawings. The Culture Fair Intelligence Test Culture-fair tests, also called culture-free tests, are designed to assess intelligence (or other attributes) without relying on knowledge specific to any individual cultural group.
The first culture-fair test, called Army Examination Beta, was developed by the United States military during World War II to screen soldiers of average intelligence who were illiterate or for whom English was a second language. Beginning in the postwar period, culture-fair tests, which rely largely on nonverbal questions, have been used in public schools with Hispanic students and other non-native-English speakers whose lack of familiarity with both English language and American culture have made it impossible to assess their intelligence level using standard IQ tests.
The Cattell scales are intended to assess intelligence independent of cultural experience, verbal ability, or educational level. They are used for special education placement and college and vocational counseling. The tests consist mostly of paper-and-pencil questions involving the relationships between figures and shapes. Parts of scale one, used with the youngest age group, utilize various objects instead of paper and pencil. Activities in scales two and three, for children age eight and up, include completing series, classifying, and filling in incomplete designs.
Standardized Tests Used in the U. S. Civil Service System The General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) The General Aptitude Test Battery, also known as the GATB, is a professional career aptitude test which measures nine different aptitudes and can be used to help assess the likelihood that you will be successful in specific careers or training programs. An aptitude is something that you have the potential to be good at; it refers to your innate ability to do well at tasks that require a specific type of skill. Aptitude is not dependent on previous learning.
For example, if you took the General Aptitude Test Battery and discovered you had a strong numerical aptitude that means you have the potential to do well at math. You may not have taken many math courses in school, but that doesn’t matter when we’re talking about aptitudes. An aptitude test seeks to measure what you have the potential to do well at; not what you already know. So, even if you haven’t studied math in many, many years, if the GATB shows that that you have a strong aptitude for math, then you can feel quite confident choosing a profession or training program that requires mathematical aptitude.
You may need to brush up on your actual math skills before you will be successful in a specific course or career, but if your aptitude for math is strong, you will not likely encounter any problems in learning the skills you need. Standardized Tests in the U. S. Military The Armed Service Vocational Aptitude Test The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, or ASVAB, is not a single test; rather, it is a battery of tests designed to determine the individual skills and abilities of personnel intending to enter the military services. In high schools, it is often used as a basic aptitude test.
Where the military is concerned, the ASVAB has two purposes; the first purpose is to determine whether the potential recruit meets basic enlistment requirements. That portion of the ASVAB used for this purpose, sometimes referred to as the “core” battery of tests, makes up the AFQT or Armed Forces Qualifying Test. The AFQT comprises about half of the entire ASVAB. The rest of the ASVAB may be regarded as an aptitude test of abilities and skills needed in various military occupations. An aptitude test is designed to ferret out strengths and weaknesses and a recruit’s qualifications to erform specific military jobs. C. List of Tests in Clinical and Counseling setting Clinical and Counseling Tests Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) The best known objective personality test is the MMPI. This test was created primarily to measure psychopathology. It contains several validity scales to determine if the client is responding to the questions accurately and truthfully, and it also contains ten basic clinical scales. Hundreds of additional scales have been created for the MMPI to measure virtually every personality trait and emotion conceivable.
The MMPI was recently revised; the MMPI-2 is now the more commonly used edition. The MMPI is interpreted by looking at scale elevations and configurations. Although limited interpretation can be done by computer programs, a skilled psychologist is needed to make accurate interpretation which takes into account a person’s background and other test data. The MCMI-III is another test similar to the MMPI. It contains scales which closely correspond to the diagnoses in DSM-IV. It is particularly useful for the diagnosis of personality disorders.
Other objective tests, such as the 16PF and the Myers-Briggs are more useful for looking at personality in the normal range, and are more helpful for counseling as opposed to psychiatric treatment. MMPI-2 Relevant to a range of contemporary applications, the MMPI-2 instrument remains the most widely used and widely researched test of adult psychopathology. Used by clinicians to assist with the diagnosis of mental disorders and the selection of appropriate treatment methods, the MMPI-2 test continues to help meet the assessment needs of mental health professionals in an ever-changing environment.
The MMPI-2 test’s contemporary normative sample and extensive research base help make it the gold standard in assessment for a wide variety of settings. The test can be used to help: Assess major symptoms of social and personal maladjustment, identify suitable candidates for high-risk public safety positions, support classification, treatment, and management decisions in criminal justice and correctional settings, give a strong empirical foundation for a clinician’s xpert testimony, assess medical patients and design effective treatment strategies, including chronic pain management, evaluate participants in substance abuse programs and select appropriate treatment approaches, support college and career counseling recommendations, and provide valuable insight for marriage and family counseling. The Cattell 16PF The Cattell 16PF (16 Personality Factor) model is probably the most-widely used system for categorizing and defining personality. Other similar systems exist and may be preferred by certain organizations and professionals, but it’s the 16PF in its various forms that is universally understood.
Unlike other common personal profiling tools such as Myers Briggs or Belbin, the 16PF defines our basic, underlying personality, without regard to how we apply it or the environment in which we apply it. A simple analogy would be to think of the human being as a personal computer. Personality profiles such as 16PF measure the basic features of the PC such as the size of the hard disk, RAM, processing speed and so on. They’re relatively unchanging features of the PC that strongly influence its performance, but which we don’t normally see.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is an indication of the breadth and complexity of the software loaded on the PC, which it uses to process ideas and information. But the way in which the PC performs is mainly influenced by its environment – as represented by the user who gives it information and asks it to perform tasks. So our underlying personality is there all the time, but the way we see it is affected by our intelligence, and by our upbringing and education, which may have taught us either to emphasize or suppress aspects of our personality.
However, if you can understand what your personality is, you can then make better use of the strengths it gives you, and make allowances for the resultant weaknesses. Because personality is relatively unchanging through adult life, this understanding will be of long-term value to you. California Psychological Inventory (CPI) – Third Edition The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) is a self-report inventory created by Harrison Gough and currently published by Consulting Psychologists Press.
It was created in a similar manner to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), but unlike the MMPI, it is not concerned with maladjustment or clinical diagnosis, but concerned itself with more “normal” aspects of personality. The CPI is made up of 480 true-false questions, half of which were taken from the original version of the MMPI. The test is scored on 18 scales, three of which are validity scales. Eleven of the non-validity scales were selected by comparing responses from various groups of people.
The other four were content validated. The test is typically used with people aged 13 years and older. It takes about 45-60 minutes to complete. The revised third edition of the CPI contains 434 items. Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) The Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) is a forced choice, objective, non-projective personality inventory, derived from the theory of H. A. Murray, which measures the rating of individuals in fifteen normal needs or motives. On the EPPS there are nine statements used for each scale.
Social Desirability ratings have been done for each item, and the pairing of items attempts to match items of approximately equal social desirability. Fifteen pairs of items are repeated twice for the consistency scale. Personality Research Form (PRF) To this day the Personality Research Form (PRF), introduced in 1967, represents a major breakthrough in psychological testing. The PRF is one of the most highly cited psychological assessments, having been referenced over 1,500 times in research literature.
The PRF has been used to study assertiveness training, consumer behavior, decision-making, emotional development, employee attitudes, job performance, leadership style, and risk-taking to name a few. The PRF benefited from modern construct-oriented methods of personality scale construction, including extensive personality trait definitions, rigorous item selection, and suppression of desirability response bias. Unlike other personality measures that define personality narrowly, the PRF measures 22 unique aspects of personality, which are based on Murray’s framework.
The result is a highly reliable, extensively validated, comprehensive measure of normal personality. Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) Personality can determine important characteristics like dependability, self-discipline, leadership, and the ability to make a good impression on others. The Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised (JPI-R) is widely considered to be one of the most psychometrically sound measures of personality. In one convenient form, the JPI-R provides a measure of personality that reflects a variety of social, cognitive, and value orientations, which affect an individual’s functioning.
NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) is a highly-regarded assessment of personality. Based on the Five-Factor model, the NEO PI-R measures the interpersonal, motivational, emotional, and attitudinal styles of adults and adolescents. It consists of 240 personality items and 3 validity items, and is available in two forms. Form-S is designed for self-reports and Form-R is written in the third person for observer reports.
The test is widely used in counseling and clinical settings with adults as well as senior high school and college students, in business and industrial settings, and psychological research, including studies in sport psychology and recreation. The NEO PI-R was designed to provide a general description of normal personality relevant to clinical, counseling and educational situations. NEO PI-R items and materials were designed to be easily read and understood. The five domains (factors) measured by the NEO PI-R provide a general description of personality, while the facet scales allow more detailed analysis.
These five factors and their facet scales include:
• Neuroticism (Anxiety, Hostility, Depression, Self-Consciousness, Impulsiveness, Vulnerability)
• Extraversion (Warmth, Gregariousness, Assertiveness, Activity, Excitement-Seeking, Positive Emotions)
• Openness to Experience (Fantasy, Aesthetics, Feelings, Actions, Ideas, Values)
• Agreeableness (Trust, Modesty, Compliance, Altruism, Straightforwardness, Tender-Mindedness)
• Conscientiousness (Competence, Self-Discipline, Achievement-Striving, Dutifulness, Order, Deliberation) FREQUENTLY USED MEASURES OF POSITIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was developed by Morris Rosenberg, Ph. D. (deceased) in 1965. (Reference: Society and The adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, N. J. : Princeton University Press. ) The scale can be used to assess global self-esteem and it is one of the most widely used self-esteem tests among psychologists and sociologists. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) The scale is a ten item Likert scale with items answered on a four point scale – from strongly agrees to strongly disagree.
The original sample for which the scale was developed consisted of 5,024 High School Juniors and seniors from 10 randomly selected schools in New York State. Instructions: Below is a list of statements dealing with your general feelings about yourself. If you strongly agree, circle SA. If you agree with the statement, circle A. If you disagree, circle D. If you strongly disagree, circle SD. General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) The author is R. Schwarzer and M. Jerusalem (1995). The GSE is a 10-item scale designed to assess optimistic self-beliefs used to cope with a variety of demands in life.
The scale was designed to assess self efficacy, i. e. , the belief that one’s actions are responsible for successful outcomes. The scaled score for each question ranges from 1 to 4. Higher scores indicate stronger patient’s belief in self-efficacy. The scale was originally developed by Jerusalem and Schwarzer in 1981 in Germany and has been translated into many languages. Studies have shown that the GSE has high reliability, stability, and construct validity (Leganger et al. 2000; Schwarzer, Mueller, & Greenglass 1999).
The scale was found to be configurally equivalent across 28 nations, and it forms only one global dimension (Leganger et al 2000. ; Scholz et al. 2002). Cronbach alpha ranges from 0. 75 to 0. 94 across a number of different language versions (Rimm and Jerusalem 1999; Luszczynska et al. 2005). Relations between the GSE and other social cognitive variables (intention, implementation of intentions, outcome expectations, and self-regulation) are high and confirm the validity of the scale (Luszczynska et al. 2005). The GSE has been translated into numerous languages and tested in populations around the world.
The reliability and validity of these translations are also very high. Sholz et al. (2002) found that the GSE is configurally equivalent across cultures and confirm that it corresponds to only one globally consistent underlying dimension. The GSE has been used extensively around the world. Consisting of only 10 items, the GSE is easy to administer and interpret. The scale measures one global dimension of self-efficacy with high reliability and validity. Ego Resiliency Scale This measure of Ego resiliency or Emotional intelligence was developed by Block and Kremen in 1996.
The Ego Resiliency Scale (ER 89) consists of 14 items, each answered using a 4-point likert scale to rate statements such as “I am regarded as a very energetic person,””I get over my anger at someone reasonably quickly, “and “Most of the people I meet are likable. ” ER89 scores correlated highly with ratings for being sympathetic, considerate, dependable, responsible, cheerful, and warm. Assertive, socially adaptive, and not hostile. Fredrikson (2001) provided evidence of the scale’s validity. Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS)
The hardiness theoretical model first presented by Kobasa (1979) provides a useful framework for understanding resilient stress response patterns in individuals and groups. Often regarded as a personality trait or set of traits, I believe psychological hardiness is better understood as a generalized style of functioning that includes cognitive, emotional and behavioral qualities. What’s especially interesting is that the hardy style of functioning distinguishes people who stay healthy under stress from those who develop stress-related problems.
For example, a number of studies have shown that soldiers who develop PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) symptoms following combat exposure are significantly lower in hardiness, when compared to those who don’t get PTSD (Bartone, 1999). The hardy style includes a strong sense of Commitment, Control, and Challenge. Commitment is the tendency to see the world as interesting and meaningful. Control is the belief in one’s own ability to control or influence events. Challenge involves seeing change and new experiences as exciting opportunities to learn and develop.
The hardy style person is also courageous in dealing with new experiences as well as disappointments, and tends to be highly competent. The high hardy person is not impervious to stress, but is strongly resilient in responding to a range of stressful conditions. Recent studies have shown that persons high in hardiness not only remain healthy, but also perform better under stress. Hope Scale The actual Hope Scale has only 12 questions, much shorter than most of the lengthy student surveys.
The following are the eight questions actually measured. Students rate them from 1 (definitely false) to 4 (definitely true). The sum of these answers provides the Hope Score. The designation of questions is in parentheses: willpower (agency) or way power (pathways). Hope as a measurable construct is an important component of likelihood of student success in facing the challenges of transition to the university learning community in the freshman year, and is relevant to spiritual and emotional well-being in that transition process.
It appears that the Hope Scale will help us with student success tasks, especially when the evidence seems to support the notion that the stronger the hope of fulfilling a dream, the more likely a college student will remain in school. Hope, according to Snyder, is a thinking process in which people have a sense of agency (willpower) and pathways (way power) for goals. Snyder and his colleagues at the University of Kansas-Lawrence have discovered ways to measure hope, and have found strong correlations between one’s beliefs in their abilities to reach goals.
Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) The LOT-R is the most widely used self-report measure of dispositional optimism, which is defined as an individual’s tendency to view the world and the future in positive ways. The LOT-R consists of 10 items developed to assess individual differences in generalized optimism versus pessimism. Items are answered on a 5-point response scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree. Although the LOT-R is widely used and has been shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument, it is notable that studies have suggested the LOT-R is more susceptible to faking good than are other tests of optimism (Terrill, Friedman, Gottschalk, & Hagga, 2002). Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) is a measure of life satisfaction developed by Ed Diener and colleagues (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985). Life satisfaction is one factor in the more general construct of subjective well being. Theory and research from fields outside of ehabilitation have suggested that subjective well being has at least three components, positive affective appraisal, negative affective appraisal, and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction is distinguished from affective appraisal in that it is more cognitively than emotionally driven. Life satisfaction can be assessed specific to a particular domain of life (e. g. , work, family) or globally. The SWLS is a global measure of life satisfaction. The SWLS consists of 5-items that are completed by the individual whose life satisfaction is being measured.
Administration is brief–rarely more than a few minutes–and can be completed by interview (including phone) or paper and pencil response. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) The 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), developed with a sample of undergraduate students and validated with adult populations, comprises two mood scales, one measuring positive affect and the other measuring negative affect. Each item is rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 = very slightly or not at all to 5 = extremely to indicate the extent to which the respondent has felt this way in the indicated time frame.
The authors have used the scale to measure affect at this moment, today, the past few days, the past week, the past few weeks, the past year, and generally (on average). Coping Intervention for Stressful Situations (CISS) The CISS measures three types of coping styles. It helps you determine the preferred coping style of an individual and contributes to your overall understanding of the relationship between that individual’s coping style and his or her personality. Results are useful for treatment and intervention planning.
The CISS includes separate adolescent and adult forms. Both are available in hand scored format using MHS QuikScore™ Forms. The CISS: Situation Specific Coping measure is also available. This component focuses on a specified event or situation. Each form takes approximately 10 minutes to complete. The adolescent version of the CISS is suitable for individuals between the ages of 13 and 18. It uses gender-specific adolescent normative data. The adult version of the CISS is suitable for individuals who are 18 years of age and older.
The CISS: SSC is a 21-item measure for adults. It examines a designated social situation, such as a change in social situation, change in a relationship, or a personal conflict. The CISS measures three types of coping styles. It helps you determine the preferred coping style of an individual and contributes to your overall understanding of the relationship between that individual’s coping style and his or her personality. Results are useful for treatment and intervention planning. D. List of Projective Tests The Rorschach Inkblot Test
The Rorschach test also known as the Rorschach inkblot test or simply the Inkblot test is a psychological test in which subjects perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex scientifically derived algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person’s personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect an underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly.
The test is named after its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach. In the 1960s, the Rorschach was the most widely used projective test. In a national survey in the U. S. , the Rorschach was ranked eighth among psychological tests used in outpatient mental health facilities. It is the second most widely used test by members of the Society for Personality Assessment, and it is requested by psychiatrists in 25% of forensic assessment cases, usually in a battery of tests that often include the MMPI-2 and the MCMI-III.
In surveys, the use of Rorschach ranges from a low of 20% by correctional psychologists to a high of 80% by clinical psychologists engaged in assessment services, and 80% of psychology graduate programs surveyed teach it. The Thematic Apperception Test or TAT The Thematic Apperception Test, or TAT, is a projective measure intended to evaluate a person’s patterns of thought, attitudes, observational capacity, and emotional responses to ambiguous test materials. In the case of the TAT, the ambiguous materials consist of a set of cards that portray human figures in a variety of settings and situations.
The subject is asked to tell the examiner a story about each card that includes the following elements: the event shown in the picture; what has led up to it; what the characters in the picture are feeling and thinking; and the outcome of the event. Because the TAT is an example of a projective instrument— that is, it asks the subject to project his or her habitual patterns of thought and emotional responses onto the pictures on the cards— many psychologists prefer not to call it a “test,” because it implies that there are “right” and “wrong” answers to the questions.
They consider the term “technique” to be a more accurate description of the TAT and other projective assessments. The TAT is often administered to individuals as part of a battery, or group, of tests intended to evaluate personality. It is considered to be effective in eliciting information about a person’s view of the world and his or her attitudes toward the self and others. As people taking the TAT proceed through the various story cards and tell stories about the pictures, they reveal their expectations of relationships with peers, parents or other authority figures, subordinates, and possible romantic partners.
Word Association Test Draw-a-Man Test The Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test was originally conceived as a measure of intelligence but has also been related to measures of sensory defect, visual-motor coordination, neurologic dysfunction, personality, and school readiness. The present study conceived of the Draw-A-Man as a nonspecific [pic]index of psychological functioning[pic] (IF) rather than as an IQ test. Deficient performance was interpreted as a sign of possible developmental disorder to be defined by other means.
The Draw-A-Man was routinely administered and scored by nurses for children four years and older seen in a university hospital pediatric outpatient clinic. Children with an IF score below 85 showed significantly greater incidence of developmental disorders including mental retardation, learning problems, communication disorders, and visual-perceptual and perceptual-motor problems than the general clinic population. The Draw-A-Man IF score was most sensitive to intellectual retardation but was also sensitive to other disorders that tend to interfere with cognitive functioning in reasonably intelligent children.
These results suggest that the Draw-A-Man could provide pediatricians with a useful developmental screening device and alert them to the possibility of developmental disorders. Sentence Completion Test Sentence completion tests are a class of semi-structured projective techniques. Sentence completion tests typically provide respondents with beginnings of sentences referred to as “stems,” and respondents then complete the sentences in ways that are meaningful to them. The responses are believed to provide indications of attitudes, beliefs, motivations, or other mental states.
There is debate over whether or not sentence completion tests elicit responses from conscious thought rather than unconscious states. This debate would affect whether sentence completion tests can be strictly categorized as projective tests. A sentence completion test form may be relatively short, such as those used to assess responses to advertisements, or much longer, such as those used to assess personality. A long sentence completion test is the Former Sentence Completion Test, which has 100 stems. The tests are usually administered in booklet form where respondents complete the stems by writing words on paper.
The structures of sentence completion tests vary according to the length and relative generality and wording of the sentence stems. Structured tests have longer stems that lead respondents to more specific types of responses; less structured tests provide shorter stems, which produce a wider variety of responses. House-Tree-Person The House-Tree-Person (H-T-P) projective technique developed by John Buck was originally an outgrowth of the Goodenough scale utilized to assess intellectual functioning. Buck felt artistic creativity represented a stream of personality characteristics that flowed onto graphic art.
He believed that through drawings, subjects objectified unconscious difficulties by sketching the inner image of primary process. Since it was assumed that the content and quality of the H-T-P was not attributable to the stimulus itself, he believed it had to be rooted in the individual’s basic personality. Since the H-T-P was an outcropping of an intelligence test, Buck developed a quantitative scoring system to appraise gross classification levels of intelligence along with at qualitative interpretive analysis to appraise global personality characteristics. Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (G-HDT)
The Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test is assumed to assess intelligence without relying on verbal ability. It is administered individually or in groups to children aged 3-15 and consists of Draw-a-Man and Draw-a-Woman Tests and an optional Self-Drawing Test. (The Draw a Person Test, which consists of the same tasks, is a separate test with a different scoring system and is available in two different versions, either as a psychological test for emotional disorders (SPED) or a measure of mental ability (QSS). In contrast, the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test is used only as an intelligence test. The Goodenough-Harris test is untimed but usually takes about 15 minutes. For all subtests, the child is asked specifically to draw the entire body rather than just the head and shoulders. He or she can erase and start over and, when the test is given individually, talk to the examiner about any of the drawings. The test is evaluated on the basis of 73 scorable criteria, with separate norms for males and females. Raw scores for the Draw-a-Man and Draw-a-Woman tests (but not for the Self-Drawing Test) are converted to standardized scores.
E. List of Tests in Health Psychology and Health Care The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) was designed to measure the intensity of dysfunctional attitudes, a hallmark feature of depression. We advocate the use of a 17-item DAS-A, which proved to be useful in measuring dysfunctional beliefs. On the basis of previous psychometric studies, our study provides solid evidence for a two-factor model of the DAS-A, consisting of ‘dependency’ and ‘perfectionism/performance evaluation’.
Irrational Beliefs Test According to the cognitive viewpoint, human behavior is often determined by beliefs and expectation rather than reality. If For example, your instructor announces that there will be an exam in the third week of classes, you will do most of your studying for it the day or two before it if you are like most students. Suppose, however, you miss the class just before the announced exam. And suppose that a “friend” of yours plays a trick on you: he telephones and tells you the exam has been canceled.
If you believe him and therefore expect that there will be no exam, will you study as hard as you would have before (if at all)? It’s unlikely. The exam will still be given (reality), but your behavior will have changed because of your belief that the exam has been canceled. In view of the influence of beliefs and expectations, several cognitive-behavioral tests have been developed to measure them. R. A. Jones (1968), for example, developed 100-item irrational beliefs Test (IBT) to measure irrational beliefs (e. g. , the belief that you must always succeed to be worthwhile).
The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII) The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII) was a direct result of material collected by E. K. Strong, Jr. in his graduate seminars after World War I. Strong discovered that people had consistent differences in their likes and dislikes. The original procedure, called the Strong Vocational Interest Blanks (SVIB), was to administer a variety of items dealing with preferences for specific occupations, academic subjects, amusements, activities, and types of people preferred.
Under the rubric of this test, Strong then compared their preferences with a rating of their own abilities and characteristics, and constructed occupational scales from those items that specified significant correlations. In 1974 the men’s and women’s blanks of the SVIB were combined into the SCII. One of the primary reasons the test was changed was to remove gender bias in the SCII. Further, I. L. Holland’s theoretical system of classifying occupations into six themes–Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional, was inserted into the SCII.
The Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (CISS) The Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (CISS) measures self-reported vocational interests and skills. Similar to traditional interest inventories, the CISS interest scales reflect an individual’s attraction for specific occupational areas. However, the CISS instrument goes beyond traditional inventories by adding parallel skill scales that provide estimates of an individual’s confidence in his or her ability to perform various occupational activities.
Together, the two types of scales provide more comprehensive, richer data than interest scores alone. The Internet version of the CISS survey, which includes an innovative test management system for counselors and an expanded CISS Career Planner, adds new dimension to this dynamic, popular instrument. The CISS instrument focuses on careers that require post-secondary education and is most appropriate for use with individuals who are college bound or college educated. The Strong Interest Inventory® (SII) Assessment
The Strong Interest Inventory® (SII) assessment will provide individuals with information about themselves and their relationship to the working world; information that will lead to greater self-understanding and to better decisions about the course of their lives. It also provides people, who must make decisions about others (e. g. , counselors, teachers, administrators and supervisors), with information and strategies so that decisions these people make are ones that consider the unique qualities on each individual.
The Strong Interest Inventory® indicator was introduced in 1927 by E. K. Strong, a researcher at Stanford University. Since that time the Strong Interest Inventory® assessment has been revised and improved, including the addition of Holland’s RIASEC theory, which added general occupational themes to improve the quality of the instrument. Because the instrument is constantly updated, the scores received by an individual today compare that person’s interests with those of people who have responded to the inventory recently and who may be in occupations that did not exist in Dr.
Strong’s day. The Strong Interest Inventory® indicator is a carefully constructed questionnaire that inquires about a respondent’s level of interest in a wide range of familiar items (i. e. words or short phrases describing occupations, occupational activities, hobbies, leisure activities, school subjects, and types of people). For each of the 317 items, the respondent is asked to indicate his or her preferences among three response categories on an answer sheet.
The answers are then analyzed by computer to derive scores on measures of interest type, called scales. The results are then printed on a report called a profile, which presents the scale scores in an organized format and offers interpretive information. Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (KOIS) The Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (KOIS), introduced in 1966 with revisions in 1979 and 1985, was empirically keyed (Osipow, Walsh, & Tosi, 1984) and indicated to which occupational groups an individual was most similar.
As was the KPR, the KOIS is a forced-choice inventory of one hundred items listing three activities from which to select most and least preferred activities. Responses are compared with those of men in a number of different occupations with an index of similarity reported on a profile. Scores are determined by means of a lambda score which is a ratio between the highest correlation individuals could receive on each occupational scale and the correlation they actually obtained between their responses and the responses of the occupational group (Zytowski, 1973b).
The homogeneous scales allow the test taker to see the similarity to both the general and unique interests within the occupational group, whereas the SVIB-SCII shows only similarity to the specific interests of the occupational group itself. The KOIS also rank orders the occupations with which the test taker shows the greatest similarity (Zytowski & Borgen, 1983). Although still considered one of the “Big Three” of interest inventories (Borgen, 1986) in use today, the KOIS has not seen the “pace of development that marked the earlier years of Kuder’s inventories” (Zytowski & Kuder, 1986, p. 52).
While good reliability and validity data has been reported, the KOIS has been criticized for its limited predictive validity; concurrent validity data availability for only 30 criterion groups; and inclusion of more male-dominated (65) than female-dominated (44) occupational scales (Herr, 1989; Jepsen, 1988). DRAW-a-Clock Task There are numerous versions of the clock-drawing test. They all involve asking the patient to draw the face of a clock. Variations include providing a blank piece of paper or a paper with a pre-drawn (often 10 cm diameter) circle and asking the patient to draw the face of a clock.
Further questions from the patients may be politely deferred by repeating the request to draw the face of a clock. Most variations of the test also include asking the patient to draw in the arms to denote certain time. Many times have been used including, 3:00, 8:40, 2:45 and so on. They time 11:10 has been suggested as useful because of the distraction of “pull” of the numeral ten on the clock when setting a time. Generally there is no time limit to the test, but the test usually takes only one to two minutes. California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)
The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) is recognized as a standard clinical tool for assessing episodic memory difficulties in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its neural correlates have not yet been examined in detail in this patient population. We combined neuropsychological examination and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis in a group of MS patients (N = 50) and demographically matched healthy participants (N = 20). We investigated the degree of impairment of the uncinate fascicle (UF), the superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF), the fornix (FX) and the cingulum (CG).
The patients were impaired on all CVLT parameters and the DTI parameters correlated moderately with disease-related variables. Regression analyses in the complete study sample showed that CVLT learning scores correlated with impairment of the right UF. This association reached marginal significance in the patient sample. In contrast to other studies claiming retrieval deficits, our results suggest that encoding and consolidation deficits may play a major role in verbal memory impairments in MS. The findings also provide evidence for an association between degree of myelination of prefrontal fibre pathways and encoding efficiency.
Finally, DTI-derived measurements appear to reflect disease progression in MS. The results are discussed in light of functional MRI studies investigating compensatory brain activity during cognitive processing in MS. Automated Neuropsychological Testing (ANAM) ANAM is a proven computer-based tool designed to detect speed and accuracy of attention, memory, and thinking ability. It records a Service Member’s performance through responses provided on a computer. It is being conducted prior to deployment and can be used to identify and monitor changes in function.
It does not diagnose any medical condition. The results may help healthcare staff compare a Service Member’s speed and accuracy of attention, memory, and thinking ability before and after an injury. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) The STAI Form Y is the definitive instrument for measuring anxiety in adults. It clearly differentiates between the temporary condition of “state anxiety” and the more general and long-standing quality of “trait anxiety”. It helps professionals distinguish between a client’s feelings of anxiety and depression.
The inventory’s simplicity makes it ideal for evaluating individuals with lower educational backgrounds. Adapted in more than forty languages, the STAI is the leading measure of personal anxiety worldwide. The STAI has forty questions with a range of four possible responses to each. Note that the STAI Form X (the previous form) is available from Mind Garden if needed. The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI), a self-report psychometric scale, was developed to measure individual differences in test anxiety as a situation-specific trait.
The test is one page and contains twenty items. Based on a Likert Scale, the respondents are asked to report how frequently they experience specific symptoms of anxiety before, during and after examinations. In addition to measuring individual differences in anxiety proneness in test situations, the TAI subscales assess worry and emotionality as major components of test anxiety. Two major components of test anxiety are: (1) worry – cognitive concerns about consequences of failure and, (2) emotionality – reactions of the autonomic nervous system that are evoked by evaluative stress.
Quality-Of-Life Assessment SF-36 The SF-36 is a multi-purpose, short-form health survey with only 36 questions. It yields an 8-scale profile of functional health and well-being scores as well as psychometrically-based physical and mental health summary measures and a preference-based health utility index. It is a generic measure, as opposed to one that targets a specific age, disease, or treatment group. Accordingly, the SF-36 has proven useful in surveys of general and specific populations, comparing the relative burden of diseases, and in differentiating the health benefits produced by a wide range of ifferent treatments. Nottingham Health profile (NHP) The Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) is easy to use with stroke patients and may be used with those who cannot manage more complicated mood questionnaires, such as the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Stroke patients rate their health, and especially emotions and feelings of social isolation, as much worse than that of people of similar age. NHP emotion scores correlate with objective measures of disability, length of hospital stay, and GHQ scores.
The NHP is a valid indicator of depressed mood, and combining its components into a total score gives the greatest accuracy in detecting depression. Patients with high scores at one month continued to report large numbers of problems at six months after their stroke. F. List of Tests in Industrial and Business Setting The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®) The purpose of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®) personality inventory is to make the theory of psychological types described by C. G. Jung understandable and useful in people’s lives.
The essence of the theory is that much seemingly random variation in the behavior is actually quite orderly and consistent, being due to basic differences in the ways individuals prefer to use their perception and judgment. “Perception involves all the ways of becoming aware of things, people, happenings, or ideas. Judgment involves all the ways of coming to conclusions about what has been perceived. If people differ systematically in what they perceive and in how they reach conclusions, then it is only reasonable for them to differ correspondingly in their interests, reactions, values, motivations, and skills. In developing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator [instrument], the aim of Isabel Briggs Myers, and her mother, Katharine Briggs, was to make the insights of type theory accessible to individuals and groups. They addressed the two related goals in the developments and application of the MBTI instrument: The identification of basic preferences of each of the four dichotomies specified or implicit in Jung’s theory. The identification and description of the 16 distinctive personality types that result from the interactions among the preferences. ” Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT)
Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) claims to measure your general intelligence. However, in fact, it measures your verbal, numerical and spatial capabilities. This highly culture based test is one of the most widely used psychological instruments all over the world. It attempts to screen the candidates for certain jobs within the shortest possible time. It may be termed as a quick IQ test. The Wonderlic personnel test was invented in 1939 by David Wonderlic. He was a student of psychology and wanted to measure intelligence of his team mates. However, due to its brevity and quickness, it became popular very soon.
More than 2. 5 million people go through it annually to clinch their applied jobs. More than 100 million people have already used it either to seek some position or to analyze their own strengths and weaknesses. Like other psychological instruments Wonderlic personnel IQ test lacks solid evidence to prove its validity. However, it is available in 12 different languages and is often applied at college, entry level jobs and team making efforts. Most of the government and private organizations have made it an integral part of their psychological assessment sessions.