Phytochemical Analysis of Amaranthus Viridis L. Paper
A Biological Research Submitted to the Research Center Alabel National Science High School Regional Science High School for Region XII Alabel, Sarangani Province Submitted by: Shaira Mae M. Yamon Fourth Year- Diamond Submitted to: SHIELA P. BUTIL, Ph. D. Research Adviser August 5, 2013 ? Chapter I Introduction A. Background of the Study
Amaranth (Amaranthus) or Pigweed popularly known as Kulitis or Uray here in the Philippines is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs that has been used for many years here and in other countries. Amaranth has significant nutritious content and can be used in many tasty recipes in place of wheat or other grains. Amaranth can grow up to seven feet tall (about 2. 1 meters), although most plants are five feet (about 1. 5 meters) or less. Amaranth plants have broad leaves and a flower head, with tiny seeds galore. The leaves come in many colors, including white, green, orange, pink, and red.
Amaranth grain has high fiber, calcium, and iron content. It has a relatively high concentration of other vitamins as well, including magnesium, phosphorus, copper, and manganese, and a nearly complete set of amino acids, which you won’t find in many other grains. The leaves of amaranth are a good source of nutrition as well, with high concentrations of vitamins A, B6, and C; riboflavin; and foliate. Minerals found in amaranth greens include calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, copper, and manganese.
Several studies have shown that amaranth seed or oil may benefit those with hypertension and cardiovascular disease; regular consumption reduces blood pressure and cholesterol levels, while improving antioxidant status and some immune parameters. In traditional medicine Amaranth is especially recommended for people with a low red blood cell count. Amaranth is one of the most delicious leafy vegetables. It is a good crop for greens especially during the summer months when it is hard to grow and other kinds of vegetables.
Amaranth is used in stews, sinigang and other dishes wherever spinach (Spinacea oleracea L). Many wild Amaranthus species are used as pot herbs. Used as ornamentals are A. tricolor forms with red, yellow and green colored leaves or leaf sections and A. cruentus with large bright red inflorescences. Amaranthus weeds are used as for fodder (pigweed). Vegetable amaranths are recommended as a good food with medicinal properties for young children, lactating mothers and for patients with fever, hemorrhage, anemia or kidney complaints.
The wild A. spinosus L. used as a depurative against venereal diseases and as dressing on boils. B. Objectives of the Study Generally this study aims to identify bioactive compounds present in Amaranth or Kulitis by Phytochemical screening. Specifically, this study seeks to: a. Know the property of Kulitis plant b. Know the visibility of the plant in curing such complicated disease. c.
Determines the capability of the plant as a herbal medicine. C. Significance of the study This study will be conducted and will undergo phytochemical screening examination. This is to determine its compound that in the future studies, it will be a great help for people in the society, especially to people who have snake bites and scorpion stings, acne, stomach problems, constipation, inflammation, eczema, bronchitis, anemia and leprosy. Snake bites and scorpion stings are dangerous because of the venom it carries.
The information gathered in this study will also help the scientific community in analyzing the possibilities of making any pharmaceutical products out of the said plant. Finally, this study will help the future researchers to conduct other possible uses of Kulitis (Amaranthus spinosus L. ) that would also be beneficial to the human health. D. Scope and Limitation of the Study The study is focused only in the analysis of Kulitis Leaves Extract and why it can possibly cure snake bites and scorpion stings, acne, stomach problems, constipation, inflammation, eczema, bronchitis, anemia and leprosy.
The study does not cover Feasibility study on the other plant extract and other toxicity level. E. Hypothesis H0: There is no component in the Kulitis Leaves Extract that can possibly cure snake bites and scorpion stings, acne, stomach problems, constipation, inflammation, eczema, bronchitis, anemia and leprosy. Hi: There is a component in the Kulitis Leaves Extract that can possibly cure snake bites and scorpion stings, acne, stomach problems, constipation, inflammation, eczema, bronchitis, anemia and leprosy. F. Definition of terms 1. Kultis -is a bushy plant with broad, green leaves. It grows up to 4 feet tall in the garden. They are ready to be harvested in 5 to 6 weeks after planting them in the garden. They grow practically wild in the garden because they have so many seeds when it matures.
The seeds are grown as grain in other countries like India and is a valuable source of protein. It contains the amino acids lysine and methionine. 2. )Phytochemical Analysis -is peer review of a study. It is devoted to the publication of original articles on the utilization of analytical methodology in the plant sciences.
The spectrum of coverage is broad, encompassing methods and techniques relevant to the extraction, separation, purification, identification and qualification of substances in plant biochemistry, plant cellular and molecular biology, plant biotechnology, the food sciences, agriculture and horticulture. 3). Amaranthus – is the scientific name of Kulitis CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Kulitis Kulitis (Amaranthus viridis L. ) is alleged to originate from the lowland Tropical South and Central America and it was introduced into other warm places of the world. This weed is mostly found on roadsides and wastelands.
It has a wide variety of distribution in all tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Southeast Asia, including the United States of America. Amaranth has significant nutritious content and can be used in many tasty recipes in place of wheat or other grains. Amaranth can grow up to seven feet tall (about 2. 1 meters), although most plants are five feet (about 1. 5 meters) or less. Amaranth plants have broad leaves and a flower head, with tiny seeds galore. The leaves come in many colors, including white, green, orange, pink,andred. It is highly adapted under lowland condition. Grow well at day temperatures above 250? C and night temperatures not lower than 150?
C. Amaranthus are quantitative short day plants. It consumes high amount of water and uses 6 mm/day. Amaranthus prefers fertile, well drained soils with a loose structure. Amaranth is propagated by seeds. Depending on the cultivar, photoperiod and cultural practices, flowering may start 4-8 weeks after sowing then the seeds mature after 3-4 months (it will serve as the source of planting materials). However, A. dubius will continue its generative stage for a much longer period and when cut regularly, the plant may become shrubby and perennial but even at its mature stage the leaves are succulent which is suitable for consumption as vegetables.
Amaranth is recognized as an easy to grow and very productive crop. It is probably the highest yielding leaf vegetable of the tropics with its excellent nutritional value thus of high importance for human consumption and as a cheap green vegetables for city dwellers. Research should focus on optimization of cultural practices, effective pest control with fewer residues and plant nutrition. Source: http://www. pinoy-entrepreneur. com/2010/08/03/amaranth-or-kulitis-production/ Uses and Importance of Kulitis Kulitis is one of the most nutritious leafy vegetables. It is used in stews, sinigang and other dishes whenever spinach (Spinaceae oleraceae L. is not available. Many wild Amaranthus species are used as pot herbs. Used as ornamentals are A. tricolor forms with red, yellow and green-colored leaves or leaf sections and A. cruentus with large bright red inflorescences. Kulitis weeds are used as fodder (pigweed). Vegetable amaranths have medicinal properties good for young children, lactating mothers and patients with fever, hemorrhage, anemia or kidney problems. The wild A. spinosus L. is used as a cure against venereal diseases and as dressing on boils. Source:http://cagayandeoro. da. gov. ph/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/KULITIS. pdf Kulitis is very rich in iron therefore it is a good supplement of it.
When someone has anemea, kulitis is just as good. It also contains Vitamin C which is the best immune system boost and calcium which is needed for strong bones. Iron is absorbed by the body in the presence of Vitamin C. Since this plant contains both, vitamin C supplement is not needed at all. Source:http://gaga-oly-herbalmedicine. blogspot. com/2011/11/chinese-spinach-kulitis. html Medicinal Uses of Kulitis Amaranth seeds and leaves are a very good source of vitamins, including vitamin A, vitamin K, vitamin B6, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate, and dietary minerals includingcalcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, copper, and manganese.
Both the seeds and leaf are high in protein, including the amino acid lysine. Amaranth seeds, like buckwheat and quinoa, contain protein that is unusually complete for plant sources. Like quinoa, another staple crop of pre-Colombian cultures, amaranth contains the essential amino acid lysine, which is deficient in wheat and barley. Most fruits and vegetables do not contain a complete set of amino acids, and thus different sources of protein must be used. Several studies have shown that like oats, amaranth seed or oil may be of benefit for those with hypertension and cardiovascular disease; regular consumption reduces blood pressure and cholesterol levels, while improving antioxidant status and some immune.
While the active ingredient in oats appears to be water-soluble fiber, amaranth appears to lower cholesterol via its content of plant stanols and squalene. There are many other medicinal uses found in Kulitis that only a few know. The decoction of the root is useful in the treatment of gonorrhea, which is a common venereal disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; symptoms are painful urination and pain around the urethra. Its bruised leaves are used locally for eczema, a generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin; particularly with vesiculation in the acute stages. The plant is moreover, used as a sudorific and febrifuge and is recommended in eruptive fevers. It is also used as an antidote for snake-poison and as a lactagogue (enhance production of mother’s breastmilk).
In addition, the plant is used as an expectorant and to relieve breathing in acute bronchitis. And the root is known elsewhere as an effective diuretic. It is also useful in treatment of menorrhagia, an abnormally heavy or prolonged menstruation; can be a symptom of uterine tumors and can lead to anemia if prolonged. Source: http://www. foodrecap. net/health/uray-benefits/ Because of its valuable nutrition, some farmers grow amaranth today and it is seen a potentially important agricultural crop of the future. However, their moderately high content of oxalic acid inhibits the absorption of calcium and zinc, and also means that they should be avoided or eaten in moderation by people with kidney disorders, gout, or rheumatoid arthritis.
Reheating cooked amaranth greens is often discouraged, particularly for consumption by small children, as the nitrates in the leaves can be converted to nitrites, similarly to spinach. Kulitis, more nutritious than spinach Due to its similar flavor to spinach, the leaves of “Kulitis” (Amaranthus viridis Linn. ) are a good substitute. It is also called amaranth, Chinese spinach, tampala and pigweed. This vegetable is known as a symbol for immortality due to the longevity of its flowers because, after they are picked, they retain their appearance and freshness long after. It can be found abundantly in the Philippines and can grow wild in wastelands, dry areas, and pastures. It is a self-sustaining plant species and is drought-resistant. It is sometimes considered a weed due to its unremarkable appearance and hardy nature.
It has other varieties with colorful leaves (purple to yellow or red) that are often grown as ornamentals. The leaves are rich in Vitamins B and C, and the minerals, iron and calcium. It can be used for salads, soups, stews and saute dishes. On its health benefits, the poultices from the leaves of kulitis can be used to cure acne. It is also used in treating boils or abscesses and as a remedy for snake and scorpion bites. Leaf extracts are used in treating dysentry and have shown antiviral properties. Source: http://www. bar. gov. ph/digest-home/digest-archives/124-2010-3rd-4th-quarter/437-it-is-not-expensive-to-be-well-and-healthy-try-tahiku Kulitis (Chinese Spinach) Wonders and its Therapeutic Benefits
If you’re living here in Philippines you must be familiar with Kulitis (internationally known as “Chinese Spinach” or “uray” in tagalog) it grows in abundance on any soil, but especially loves loose clay loam soil generally found in rural areas. Did you know that aside for its cheap and affordable price, this indigenous vegetable is rich in dietary fiber, iron, calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin, niacin and many more. 1. Prevention from Anemia – Kulitis also known here as a “herb that stops the bleeding” it can treat internal bleeding and excessive menstruation remedy because of its iron content. 2. Asthma – Yes, it can treat asthma just mix the leaves with water and boil it for a specific time. then drink. 3. Urinary troubles and diarrhea – The leaves of kulitis has great benefits. It have considerable amount of potassium in the leaves that might explain kulitis diuretic properties.
Also, the potassium maintains the proper electrolyte and acid-base balance in the body. 4. Bowel movement -kulitis have high fiber content which helps remove the toxins and eliminate waste 5. Breastfeeding – Kulitis also contains calcium, phosphorus, and iron which helps in enhancing production of mother’s breastmilk. Source:http://www. bubblews. com/news/372912-kulitis-chinese-spinach-wonders-and-its-therapeutic-benefits Chapter III METHODOLOGY In this chapter, the researcher present the materials and the procedure on the phytochemical screening conducted.
The researcher prepared 100 grams of Kulitis leaves, 100 mL of 95% ethyl alcohol, 2 beakers or Erlenmeyer flasks, 10 test tubes , 1 test tube rack, 1 L distilled water , pair of scissors, 1 tray, roll of foil, cotton, gauze, tape , sulfuric acid, Dragendorff’s solution , Mayer’s regent, Wagner’s regent, Ferric acid, diluted hydrolic acid, Fehling’s B for the phytochemical screening. In the preparation of the phytochemical screening of Kulitis leaves , the researcher did some steps to ready the leaves. First, the researchers clean the leaves with natural water then, with distilled water. After cleaning the leaves , it must be dried under the heat of the sun. Then, cut it into 1 cm thick.
Prepare the 95% ethyl alcohol, beaker, cotton, gauze, foil. Place the leaves in the beaker and soak it in 95% ethyl alcohol for 48 hours (2 days) and place the gauze and cotton at the top of the beaker then cover it and tape it. After 48 hours, the soaked leaves are extracted. The extract must be placed in another beaker and cover it again with cotton, gauze, foil. The extract must be refrigerated to avoid having molds. 1. Test for Sterols and Tipertenes (Lieberman-Berchard Test) A 10mL Kulitis leaves extract was dissolved in 10mL acetic anhydride. The soluble portions were decanted and 1-2 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid was added.
Green color is observed,either immediately or solely going to red or blue tones. A pink to red color is indicative of tipernoids while a blue color is indicative of steroids. 2. Test of Flavonoids One (1)mL Kulitis leaves extract was treated with 1mL 10 % hydrolic acid and few Magnesium turnings were added . Formation of red color is the present of flavonoids. 3. Test of Alkaloids Each Kulitis leaves extract with 1% HCl and drops of Mayer’s Reagent of Wagner’ Reagent were added to the filtered acid extract. A cream colored precipitate is observed in the case of Mayer’s Rgt. while a reddish brown precipitate is observed in the case of Wagner’s Rgt. Formula of Mayer’s Rgt. : Weight 1. 58g of mercuric chloride was dissolved in 60mL distilled water. On the other hand,5g of potassium iodine was added in 10mL distilled water. The two solution were mixed and diluted to 100mL with distilled water. Formula for Wagner’s Rgt. : Weight 1. 3g crystals and 2. 0g of potassium iodine were placed in a sufficient amount of distilled water to make a total volume of 100mL was dissolved. 4. Test for Tannins Each Kulitis leaves extract was extracted with hot water and the aqueous extract was then filtered. Upon addition of 5-10 drops of ferric chloride test solution to the filtrate. A dark color and precipitate forms which may either be black, green or blue green. 5. Test for Saponins
Each Kulitis leaves extract was dissolved in hot water. The aqueous extract when shaken vigorously. The froth honey comb in nature should perish for at least 30 minutes. 6. Test of Glycosides Each kulitis leaves extract was dissolved in hot water and the filtered. The filtrate was subjected froe glycosides test. 2mL sample was placed in each two test tubes. 1mL of diluted hydrochloric acid was added to test tube 1. Nothing was added to test tube 2. The test tubes were placed in boiling water bath for 5 min. Then the test tubes were cooled. The sample were both neutralized with anhydrous sodium carbonate until no more effervescence is produce. The one mL of Fehling’s B was added to test tube 1.
One ml of Fehling’s solution was added to test 2. The tubes were heated in water bath for 2 mins. Observe the brick red precipitate that formed. An increase in the amount of brick red precipitate in the hydrolyzed sample (the sample to which diluted acid was added) as compared to the other sample indicates the presence of the glycosides.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Folk Medicine of the Nilgiri Hills in Southern India,S. Rajan and M. Sethuraman,©2008,pp. 99 Unpublished Thesis: Unpublished Thesis Book, Latoja, Unabia,and Dearos,2010 Unpublished Thesis Book, Concon, Pasawilan,and Gunay,2010 Internet: http://www. pinoy-entrepreneur. com/2010/08/03/amaranth-or-kulitis-production/