iterature Review Digital Learning vs. Traditional Learning We have entered an era in which children, teens, adults are exposed to digital techonology. This rapidly evolving information technology, has become a driving force of great change in all social institutions. Digital technology revolutionizes many of the ways we receive and use information every day. the advent of digital technology touches almost every aspect of modern life and has transformed the means of communication immensely. Perhaps no area holds more potential for such transformation than education.
Digital technology makes informative content easier to find, to access, to manipulate and remix, and to disseminate. All of these steps are central to teaching, scholarship, and study. Together, they constitute a dynamic process of ? digital learning Indeed, one of the most exciting features of digital technology is its capacity to permeate society unrestricted by the walls of a school or the formal roles of teachers and students. new technology allows everyone to become teachers and students ? reating digital learning tools, disseminating them broadly through the internet, and learning from digital content promulgated by others.
ADVANTAGES: Teaching and learning in traditional schools, from kindergarten to graduate school, benefits from digital technology that enables new pedagogical methods and allows easy access to vast quantities of educational content. Examples of changes that capitalize on this potential include: * A planned online network for high school history teachers, allowing them to share advice and classroom resources (the subject of a more detailed case study found in section 2.
); * Classroom teaching enhanced with new media such as PowerPoint slides or video and audio clips (including the use of DVD clips in film studies classes, the subject of a more detailed case study found in section 2. 2) * Extension of the classroom dialogue through mechanisms such as e-mail or class blogs and wikis; * Student authorship of diverse content beyond the traditional term paper and diorama, from video and audio to hyperlinked web pages; DISADVANTAGES:
Without question, digital technology provides new opportunities for rich reuses of content in many educational contexts, from the traditional classroom to the cutting-edge openness of Wikipedia. That progress will continue. But significant obstacles also confront educational uses of content. The purpose of our review was to inquire to the effectiveness of electronic methods as opposed to traditional methods of acquiring knowledge as seen by students and teachers in the academic environment. We wanted to know the reasons of popularity of visual and digital media and the usage and impacts of this development on the society.
E-learning E-learning is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classroom opportunities and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio. Teachers as well as students have developed new ways of transferring and gaining knowledge.
In this digital age learning has become more effective, interactive and convenient. Knowledge is easily accessible at very low cost. Digital earning has become more interesting with texts including colorful pictures, related video and many other resources linked, providing its user the same knowledge in different styles. In this digital environment different forms of teleconferencing promote group work and let learners share their knowledge among their fellows which updates this generation with the latest information about every field that has their concern.
The multisensory impression can be used for presenting, recognizing, understanding, processing, testing and experimenting, or simply for repeating. Not only the spoken and the written word are combined and integrated with a pedagogical intention, but also, where this is required, image, audio and video information, animation and even virtual reality, for example in the form of three-dimensional spaces. What we are faced with here is an accumulation, compression and intensification of presentation that has never been seen before, because it was never before possible.
What a difference there is between writing on a board in a classroom, graphics printed in a study letter, monochrome pictures in a textbook, which are usually much too small anyway, and the potential audiovisual land of milk and honey into which the digital learning environment can lead us. Digital appeal to students For many students, the presence of a digital learning environment is much more favorable rather than working through printed material with a pencil in their hands.
The fascination of being able to master or control a complicated system as though being an actor appears to provoke students to self-learning. This is when we realize the autonomy of digital learning over that of books. The learning through digital media is preliminary to spoken. However when the printed word was appended to it, it was a sharp break with traditional. The digital learning to many is more intense, more diversified, concise and colorful. The facial expressions and body language of the character being visible triggers the learning process. It is more applicable to the lives of the learners.
Moreover, there is much more prominence of collaborative learning in digital media which is not very effective in traditional education. The research work emerges to be more easy and convenient through digital learning. Digital Technology and a few findings Digital technology progresses in the long-term. While it may appear to waver in the short run but on a long view it generally seems to flow in the right direction. Several studies found that computers have positive effects on teaching language. Stepp (2002) summarized some positive effective benefits of technology for foreign language learners.
Research results of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) showed a significant increase in students’ scores in both reading comprehension and vocabulary and spelling (Stone, 1996; Kulik, 1994; SIIA, 2000) in the classrooms where computers are used. Students using computer software designed for developing spelling had significantly higher scores than the others (Stone, 1996; Anderson-Inman, 1990 cited in SIIA, 2000). Researchers have found that when students use word processors, they show a higher level of writing skills (SIIA, 2000). Hirata.
However, there are some other studies showing that there were no significant differences between the classrooms using computer applications and those using traditional lecture-based courses (Wilson, 1996 cited in Gilbert & Han, 1999; Goldberg, 1997, Hokanson & Hooper 2000). For example, Cuban, Kirkpatrick, and Peck’s study (2001) show that investments in infrastructure and increased access to technology did not lead to increased integration, instead, most teachers remained “occasional” or “non-users” of classroom technology (p. 813). Mobility of Information
The newly emerging “Digital repository” allows a student to use various interactive simulations in the educational context. For example if a student is working in a computer room in his university and wants to use the simulation from home that evening and then in another computer room the next day, he’ll download unique URL from the repository and place it in a university home page in order to get access from anywhere. Before leaving the repository the student can also complete an “alert” request so that any info about new resources uploaded in the repository can be found.
The 32 volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica are available on CD-ROM, for example, but can also be accessed in an updated version via the Internet. Large newspaper groups have already opened their digitized archives. Digital libraries, some of which do not have a single book of their own, help searchers to examine the required literature by means of digital catalogues and abstracts. Students have all the information in the world at the tips of their fingers. They have access to many relevant data pools and can even use search engines to make this access even more comfortable. They can retrieve electronic books or course _les as if by magic.
And if they have the latest technology available, they can even have these read out. Spoken commands, such as “meaning” or “encyclopedia” automatically trigger additional explanations and commentaries which make understanding easier. Social Media Although Twitter may not penetrate the classroom just yet, social media help students maintain an active social life beyond the classroom. One of the biggest myths about online education is that students will become socially inept. Instead, learning online allows students to study at their own pace, usually opening up hours for sports, hobbies, volunteer work, and time with friends.
Most programs also allow students to study what interests them. Not that learning online is easier. In fact, quite the opposite: students require tremendous discipline and excellent time management skills The Digital Divide Nevertheless the growing digital divide is actually leading to greater inequalities in development. This is giving rise to paradoxical situations where those who have the greatest need of them disadvantaged groups, rural communities, illiterate populations or even entire countries do not have access to the tools which would enable them to become full-fledged members of the knowledge society.
Technological development allows for new paradigms of access and new delivery systems, linked to new types of demand. Continuous miniaturization of equipment, reduced costs, increased user flexibility, portability and integration offer a whole range of new opportunities. The children of today are growing up in technology but the elders of yesterday were not so privileged. We are the digital natives and they (our teachers) the digital immigrants. Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach.
Today’s students have not just changed incrementally from those of the past, nor simply changed their slang, clothes, body adornments, or styles, as has happened between generations previously. A really big discontinuity has taken place. It is now clear that as a result of this ubiquitous environment and the sheer volume of their interaction with it, today’s students think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors. These differences go far further and deeper than most educators suspect or realize.
Unfortunately for our Digital Immigrant teachers, the people sitting in their classes grew up on the “twitch speed” of video games and MTV. They are used to the instantaneity of hypertext, downloaded music, phones in their pockets, a library on their laptops, beamed messages and instant messaging. They’ve been networked most or all of their lives. They have little patience for lectures, step-by-step logic, and “tell-test” instruction. So if Digital Immigrant educators really want to reach Digital Natives – i. e. all their students – they will have to change.
It’s high time for them to stop their grousing, and as the Nike motto of the Digital Native generation says, “Just do it! ” They will succeed in the long run – and their successes will come that much sooner if their administrators support them. Redefined relationship of author and reader The introduction of computer has increased the complications regarding the definition of the word “text”. Electronic text combines both word and image so now there are two literacies, visual and verbal. The word processing software has not challenged the traditional reading practices as has done the World Wide Web and the usage of hypertexts.
Printed texts are generally linear while hyper texts are multi linear. Electronic mail has changed the style of writing from a formal prose style to a more casual and conversational style. The relationship between the author and the reader has also been redefined. They are working in collaboration as when the author posts a document in word format, the reader can open and change it according to his needs. With the wide variety of links available, the students are more likely to be critical in their choice and more aware that a text could be something other than how it is portrayed.
Television and children Children usually have to make less effort while watching television and they find it easy medium of learning than books but the television bombard us with superficial information. Television is form-oriented and books are content-oriented. Children don’t learn much from television as they perceive only the information in accordance with their prior knowledge and believes. The mental effort they put depends upon their experience with that media. The Invested Mental Effort (AIME) is the number of non-automatic elaborations of the information.
Mental effort invested in processing information provided by a medium depends on the perceived demand and self efficacy to perceive information. Changes in teaching styles Student of all levels don’t like the traditional studying approach and not every child responds to it effectively which is the reason teachers are changing the medium of teaching e. g. through music, TV, DVD etc. a new method is to develop the children’s interests in books by adding audio, video, pictures and other such things which catch their attention and provide knowledge in a fun manner.
Apart from that it becomes easier for the teachers too because these books have a sequence of things which they can follow and convert it into their education plan. The most important factor is that these books not only teach the kids how to read and write but also develop their interpersonal skills, think critically, and discover what they are capable of and thus develop love for learning. Hence these books will create not just high achieving students but also confident human beings. E-books The e-books, which have no printed version, no PDF versions of real books and are only available on authors own web site.
They don’t pass through traditional publisher, editor and quality control process like real physical books so authors himself get all the money saved from this and they can keep the prices low. The real book have some guaranteed standard of quality, but if you buy some random PDF on the internet it may turn out to be total junk or something right out from the expert. Moreover after raking in a bunch of cash for these eBooks, 37signals put it on their web site for free which is unfair with those who had to pay for it though real book are physical objects that you own even if they are posted on internet.
E-books have entered schools, colleges and universities to deliver course contents instead of textbooks. In the states K-12 public school system is developing more due to digital books in this era. Governments are not only supporting digitalization of learning but are also providing public educational institutions funds to buy the technology necessary to use E-text books. The states it discussed are Texas, Indiana, Michigan and California. Advantages of digital text books it mentioned are Hyper linking (digital extbooks using hyper linking like Wikipedia articles can give more detailed knowledge through different prospective), Updated information (unlike hardcopies of text books digital version can be corrected and kept updated more conveniently with no cost at all mostly), Enhanced learning experience (digital text books including related video clips, adios and message boards for students not only enhance learning experience but also create interactivity among teachers and learners that provides the healthy flow of knowledge) and Budget-friendly (no need to be replaced for the purpose of updating and nor due to student’s loss or damage).
Summary The distance learning platform increases the flexibility of students’ study program. The permanent access to courses and the possibility to have quick feed-back from teachers, on one hand, and their reduced time for study, on the other hand, determine the positive influence of the platform on the students’ study time. The students with better basic computer and Internet skills prefer the online learning methods, find more accessible the distance learning platform and consider the access to courses as being more facile.
All the students which prefer the online teaching method and which have better level of c computer and Internet skills consider the platform as being suitable for the distance learning. Moreover, the majority of the students see the platform like an environment which improves the communication between students and teachers, with their colleagues and with the administrative department.
References: * Otto peters (2000) Digital learning environments: New possibilities and opportunities The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning (Canada) D Olmedilla (2006) Educational Technology & Society Journal of educational technology and society * Dr Charles Duncan (2003) eLearn International Edinburgh * David Reinking (1998) Transformations in a post-typographic world. Handbook of literacy and technology: * Johannes W. J. (1989) A Dutch, Replication Study Based on Salomon’s Model 46-47 of Learning from Television and Books.