Unit: 9740 Change Management Table of contents Introduction p3 1. 0 Description of 2 schools of thought 1. Theories of planned change p3 2. Lewin’s change model p3 3. The positive model p4 2. 0 Comparison of each school p5 3. 0 Drive or impede planned change and reactive change p6
Conclusion p7 Reference List p8 Introduction In this report, there are two models; Lewin’s Change model and the positive model. The case for these models is SAMSUNG Company. Firstly, this essay starts with description of two schools of thought and each step of two models. Secondly, there will be comparison between Lewin’s Change model and the positive model adapt with the case. Finally, drive or impede planned change and reactive change are demonstrated. 0.
Description of 2 schools of thought 1. Theories of planned change Conceptions of planned change have tended to focus on how change can be implemented in organizations. Called “theories of changing. ” These frameworks describe the activities that must take place to initiate and carry out successful organizational change. In this section, we describe and compare two theories of changing: Lewin’s change model, the action research model, an the positive model. These frameworks have received widespread attention in OD and serve as the primary basis for a general model of planned change. (Cummings, 2005) 2. Lewin’s change model
One of the earliest models of planned change was provided by Kurt Lewin. The level of performance of a work group might be stable because group norms maintaining that level are equivalent to the supervisor’s pressures for change to higher levels. This level can be increased either by changing the group norms to support higher levels of performance or by increasing supervisor pressures to produce at higher levels. Lewin suggested that decreasing those forces maintaining the status quo produces less tension and resistance than increasing forces for change and consequently is a more effective change strategy. Cummings, 2005), (Palyong. S, 2011) • Unfreezing: This step usually involves reducing those forces maintain the organization’s behaviour at its present level. Unfreezing is sometimes accomplished through a process of “psychological disconfirmation. ” By introducing information that shows discrepancies between behaviours desired by organization members and those behaviours currently exhibited, members can be motivated to engage in change activities. (Cummings, 2005), (Palyong. S, 2011) • Moving (Transition): This step shifts the behaviour of the organization, department, or individual to a new level.
It involves intervening in the system to develop new behaviours, values, and attitudes through changes in organizational structures and processes. (Cummings, 2005), (Palyong. S, 2011) • Refreezing: This step stabilizes the organization at a new state of equilibrium. It is frequently accomplished through the use of supporting mechanisms that reinforce the new organizational state, such as organizational culture, rewards, and structures. (Cummings, 2005), (Palyong. S, 2011) 3. The positive model The positive model represents an important departure from Lewin’s model. This model focuses on what the organization is doing right.
It helps members understand their organization when it is working at its best and builds off those capabilities to achieve even better results. Thus, positive expectations about the organization can create an anticipation that energizes and directs behaviour toward making those beliefs happen. (Cummings, 2005) ¦ Initiate the Inquiry: This first phase determines the subject of change. It emphasizes member involvement to identify the organizational issue they have the most energy to address. If the focus of inquiry is real and vital to organization members, the change process itself will take on these positive attributes. Cummings, 2005) ¦ Inquire into Best Practices: This phase involves gathering information about the “best of what is” in the organization. If the topic is organizational innovation, then members help to develop and interview protocol that collects stories of new ideas that were develop an interview protocol that collects stories of new ideas that were developed and implemented in the organization. (Cummings, 2005) ¦ Discover the Themes: In this phase, members examine the stories, both large and small, to identify a set of themes representing the common dimensions of people’s experiences.
The themes represent the basis for moving from “What is” to “What could be” (Cummings, 2005) ¦ Envision a Preferred Future: Members then examine the identified themes, challenge the status quo, and describe a compelling future. Based on the organization’s successful past, Members collectively visualize the organization’s future and develop “possibility propositions’-statements that bridge the organization’s current best practices with ideal possibilities for future organizing. (Cummings, 2005) Design and Deliver Ways to Create the Future: The final phase involves the design and delivery of ways to create the future. It describes the activities and creates the plans necessary to bring about the vision. It proceeds to action and assessment phases similar to those of action research described previously. Members make changes, assess the results, make necessary adjustments, and so on as they move the organization toward the vision and sustain “What will be. ” The process is continued by renewing the conversations about the best of what is. Cummings, 2005) 2. 0 Comparison of each school |Area of change |Lewin’s change model |The positive model | |Technological change |SAMSUNG CEO figured out that the |SAMSUNG Company organizes the | | |company needs new product to compete|meeting for staff to discuss about | | |with I-phone 4 from APPLE Company.. necessity of developing new software| | |SAMSUNG Company forces to develop |for new product. It is a step of | | |new software to staff for Galaxy S |Inquire into Best Practices. | | |4G which takes aim to I-Phone 4. It | | | |is a step of unfreeze. | |Structural change |New members, new team and post for |SAMSUNG Company CEO organizes the | | |developing new software must be |meeting to choose the staffs for | | |created in SAMSUNG Company. It helps|creating new team and post for | | |member to facilitate to develop new |developing Galaxy S 4G. It is a step| | |software.
It is a step of |of Initiate the Inquiry. | | |transition. | | |People change | | | | |SAUMSUNG Company staffs have to |SAMSUNG Company staffs understand | | |figure out new ideas to develop new |necessity of developing new software| |Self |software. |for Galaxy S 4G. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Team | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Organisation | | | | | | | | | |SAMSUNG Company staff members can | | |New teams have to gather their ideas|gather information about development| | |together and figure out which idea |of Galaxy S 4G in the organization. | | |is the best for new software. |It is a step of Discover the Themes. | |SAMSUNG Company changes their output|When SAMSUNG Company CEO consider | | |schedule, because of production of |about change of output schedule, | | |Galaxy 4G. Then, there would be |the staff members will be provided | | |change in the organisation of the |meeting again and discuss about | | |company. |which way is the best. It means, | | | |staff members will figure out the | | | |way of change themselves. | (SAMSUNG, n. d) 3. 0 Drive or impede planned change and reactive change Schools of thought |Planned change |Reactive change | | |Drive |Impede |Drive |Impede | | |Transition (Moving) |There is no time to |Unfreezing stage helps |Refreezing stage | | |stage encourage member|adopt new change for |to reduce time. So, it |ensures that there is| | |to follow the change. |staff members in |is helpful when the |no way back to | | |Using facilitation |unfreezing stage. |company needs change |previous ways of | | |helps members too. |Staff members cannot |suddenly. Transition |working.
It will not | |Lewin’s change model |Refreeze stage also |be given any option, |(Moving) stage helps |flexible device if | | |helps staffs to be |but to obey. Staffs |members to follow |the change goes | | |satisfied about their |may be unable to bear|change. When pressure of|different way from | | |change. |a burden. |company become hardly, |expected way. | | | | |staff members need to | | | | | |facilitation to helps | | | | | |member. | | |Initiate the Inquiry, |In the Discover the |Inquire into Best |Totally, this model | | |Inquire into Best |Themes phase, members|Practices stages can |takes too long time | | |Practices and Envision|examine the stories |gather information. |to make staff act. | | |a Preferred Future |to identify a set of |Then, members help to |There are too many | | |helps staff members |themes representing |develop an interview |discuss among the | | |understand and adapt |the common dimensions|each other and tell |staffs. Also, it is | | |into the change. They |of people’s |stories of innovation in|not easy to gather | | |can be given choice, |experiences.
It is |which they have |all of staff’s | | |communicate each of |not so important |personally been |opinion. So, it is | | |members and shown good|stage, because it is |involved. In this stage,|not suitable for | | |team work. Also, they |similar stage with |staff members can create|sudden or immediate | | |can act after |second; Inquire into |huge idea from each |change. Initiate the | | |understanding and |Best Practices. The |small idea. In Design |Inquiry, Discover the| | |deciding their way to |final step; Design |and Deliver Ways to |Themes and Envision a| |The positive model |act.
Moreover, staff |and Deliver Ways to |Create the Future stage,|Preferred Future | | |members are able to |Create the Future |members make changes, |stage could be left | | |create unique idea |also describes the |assess the result, make |out. | | |together. |activities and |necessary adjustments, | | | | |creates the plans |and so on as they move | | | | |necessary to bring |the organization toward | | | | |about the vision ,but|the vision.
It helps | | | | |it s not big |members to continue | | | | |different from fourth|conversation about the | | | | |stage; Envision a |best of what is. | | | | |Preferred Future. So,| | | | | |it could be left out | | | | | |to reduce time to | | | | | |practice. | | | (Cummings,2005),( Palyong. S,2011) Conclusion
There were two different styles of schools of thought in this essay. As shown in this essay, Lewin’s model differ from the positive model in terms of the level of involvement of the participants and the focus of the change. Lewin’s model focuses on the general process of planned change. SAMSUNG Company externally seems to follow the Lewin’s model as a change model, but it was also able to figure out the strategy in the positive model. In conclusion, SAMSUNG Company flexibly follows two models. Reference List 1. Cummings, T. G & Worley, C. G. (2005). Organization Development and Change, 8th ed. Ohio: South-Western p9 2. Cummings, T. G & Worley, C. G. (2005).
Organization Development and Change, 8th ed. Ohio: South-Western p12 3. Palyong, S. (2011. October 12). Original solving the problem – practice of alternative and change management. Retrieved November 4, 2011, from http://blog. daum. net/songpy80/6045890 4. SAMSUNG . (n. d). New business of SAMSUNG Company. Retrieved November 4, 2011, from http://www. samsung. co. kr/samsung/philosophy/new. do 5. SAMSUNG . (n. d). Philosophy of SAMSUNG Company. Retrieved November 4, 2011, from http://www. samsung. co. kr/samsung/philosophy/principle. do 6. SAMSUNG. (n. d). The history of SAMSUNG Company. Retrieved November 4, 2011, from http://www. samsung. co. kr/samsung/history. do