This essay sample on Causes Of Ebd provides all necessary basic info on this matter, including the most common “for and against” arguments. Below are the introduction, body and conclusion parts of this essay.
Running head: CAUSAL RISK FACTORS Causal Risk Factors Sharon O’Keefe Grand Canyon: SPE 513 October 5, 2011 Causal Factors coincide Identifying and understanding the causes of Emotional and Behavioral Disorder (EBD) can help in developing successful interventions and prevention strategies. Research has been unable to show that any specific factors cause EBD, but causal risk factors seem to concur with EBD.
These risk factors are categorized as either internal (biological) or external (family, school, and culture) (Yell, Meadows, Drasgow, and Shriner, 2009).
Internal risk factors encompass an individual’s characteristics, while external risk factors encompass family, school, and culture. Depending on the developmental stage of the child, these risk factors have different effects on the child. These risk factors increase the likelihood of future emotional or behavioral problems. Often a child is exposed to more than one of these risk factors making it even more likely that they will exhibit EBD (Yell, et al, 2009).
Biological risk factors are either physiological (how the body works) or psychological (arising in the mind) in nature.
Thus cognitive deficits, hyperactivity, and concentration problems are three factors that fit into the biological category. Cognitive deficits can lead to poor problem-solving skills, poor social skills and behavioral deviation (Yell, et al, 2009). Hyperactivity and concentration problems can make it hard for students to follow lectures or conversations.
Frustration at not being able to keep up, can lead to problematic behaviors. Conditions in the home can be risk factors for students with EBD. Family factors may include poverty, abuse, and harsh or ineffective discipline.
These factors can have an impact on a child’s learning of social and behavioral skills. Children learn inappropriate behavior from their parents and siblings that makes it hard to be successful in the school setting. According to Yell, Meadows, Drasgow, and Shriner (2009), poverty “may be the single most common denominator for risk of behavioral deviation. ” (p. 11) School environment can also be considered risk factors for EBD. Inappropriate social behaviors can even be learned or reinforced at school. If teachers ignore bulling and harassment, it seems like they are condoning such behavior.
Unclear or absent rules and school policies covering student behavior may add to EBD. Students need structure, but discipline needs to be fair and take into account student differences. The range of acceptable student behavior is narrow and often biased. Often a power struggle ensues between the student with EBD and the staff. Classroom practices can also affect student behavior and performance. Poor teacher practices may include not interacting with students, not giving praise or providing opportunities for the students with EBD to correctly respond.
This causes students to get frustrated and act up even more (Yell, et al, 2009). Culture can also influence student behavior. If children are exposed to a variety of attitudes, prejudices and expectations, they adopt or mimic these behaviors. Cultural biases needs to be eliminated from the classroom as much as possible. Cultural differences need to be taken into consideration when working with students who have EBD. In some cultures there is a little adult supervision. Children are left to fend for themselves, and they do not learn boundaries or appropriate social skills.
Even the gang culture can influence students with EBD (GCU, 2011). Gangs become the child’s family. Rick factors do not take place in isolation. They are intertwined and change over time. Understanding risk factors and the interplay between them can help in the identification of students with EBD. This is the first step in deciding on intervention. Interventions are as various as the behaviors exhibited by students with EBD. No one intervention will be successful at mitigating the risk factors. Behaviors that need to be dealt with are either excesses or deficits (GCU, 2011).
There are several theoretical or conceptual models to help in assessing or evaluating, in intervening with students, and communications with others. There are six main models that may be useful (Yell, et al, 2009). The first model is the psychoanalytic model purports that emotions and behaviors are caused by pathological imbalance in mental states. Treatment includes therapy and a very accepting teacher in a permissive classroom environment (Yell, et al, 2009). The second model is the biological or biogenic model where it is thought that behaviors are a result of physiological influences, like genetics, biochemical and temperament factors.
Usual treatment is drug therapy or surgery (GCU, 2011). The third model is the humanistic model believes that behavior is the result of a clash between societal pressures to conform and a person’s self-actualization needs. Approach to treatment includes having a loving supportive environment, where students are encouraged to solve their own problems in a positive way (Yell, et al, 2009). This calls for higher level thinking about one’s thoughts and behaviors (GCU, 2011). The fourth model is the ecological model.
In this approach, the student’s behavior is seen as a result of their environment. Problems occur when a person’s needs or character do not match their environment. This is when proper placement is imperative (Yell, et al, 2009). The fifth model is the psychoeducational model. The belief of this model is that there is and underlying internal conflict or unconscious motivation for behavior. Behavior must be analyzed to help student understand their actions and be able to prevent them in the future (Yell, et al, 2009).
The teacher should instruct the student to become aware of their behaviors, to think of consequences and to think of alternative reactions. The final model is the social-cognitive model. This theory looks at the “reciprocal effects of environment, behavior and person-based variables (GCU, 2011). It is believed that the main determinants of human behavior are within the individual. The problem is that students with EBD have flawed thoughts, beliefs and perceptions that affect their behavior (Yell, et al, 2009). Interventions are as varied as the models used to design and implement behavior plans.
According to a study completed by the Clover Park School District, “ Conditions that promote positive behavior in the classroom include (a) clear behavior expectations, (b) the teaching of expected behaviors, (c) consistent and sound responses to rule violations, and (d) individualized programming for more chronic behavioral difficulties. ” (Christensen, Jaeger, Lorenz, Morton, Neuman, Rieke, et al. , 2005, p. 5). Effective instructional strategies include are varied, but could include: advanced planning, rapid pace, smooth transitions, provide interesting hands-on activities, and offer choices (Yell, et al, 2009).
Having a proactive approach is more efficient and less disruptive than a reactive approach. Positive Behavior Support is a three-tiered approach that uses graduated levels of intensity in dealing with problematic behaviors. In Tier One is a wide range of strategies is applied across multiple life domains to reduce risks. This is a universal intervention used to prevent initial occurrences of a problem. In Tier Two, prevention strategies are aimed at providing extra help for students who are exposed to multiple rick factors. The Third Tier is aimed at dealing with problems that are already out of control (Yell, et al, 2009).
The intervention or interventions chosen will be based on the student needs. A functional behavioral assessment (FBA) must be completed to discover what is behind the behavior. These could be the causal factors discussed earlier. When the behavior is understood, then a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) is written and implemented. This process is a team effort (Yell, et al, 2009). What is important is that the behavior is gotten under control, so that the student can be successful in the school setting. This will in turn help the student later in life. References Christensen, B. , Jaeger, M. , Lorenz, R. Morton, S. , Neuman, L. , Rieke, E. , Simpson, B. , and Watkins, C. , (2005). Teaching students with severe emotional and behavioral disorders: Best practices guide to intervention. Retrieved October 11, 2011 from http://www. k12. wa. us/SpecialEd/Families/pubdocs/bestpractices. pdf Grand Canyon University. Lecture notes. SPE-513 Strategies: Emotional/Behavioral Disability. Fall 2011. Yell, M. L. , Meadows, N. B. , Drasgow, E. , and Shriner, J. G. (2009). Evidence-based practices for educating students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.