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Avoiding Sentence Errors: Correcting Fragments, Run-Ons, Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers I. Introduction It is important for us to know how to avoid these kind of sentence errors like sentence fragments, run-ons, misplaced and dangling modifiers. But let’s define what are these first. Fragments are incomplete sentences that are presented as complete sentences. Run-ons are two or more sentences that have been incorrectly joined. Dangling modifiers are misplaced parts of a sentence that usually end up causing confusion in readers. II. Content Sentence fragments are another common error.
A sentence fragment is a group of words, not a complete sentence. Remember that to be a complete sentence, a group of words must have a subject and a verb and must express a complete idea. Thus a group of words must not depend on the sentence before it or after it to provide a complete idea. Incorrect Examples: Ran to the car. (This is a fragment that is lacking a subject. ) The woman at the bus stop. (This is a fragment that is lacking a main verb. ) Behaving badly. (This is a fragment that is lacking a subject or a main verb. ) When one of the car’s tires went flat. This is a subordinate clause. ) Correcting Fragments Created when phrases and subordinate clauses are punctuated as if they were complete sentences, fragments can be corrected by adding the information that is missing. To rectify fragments, add a subject to the sentence that is missing a subject, add a verb to the sentence that is missing a verb, and connect a subordinate clause to a main clause to create a complete sentence. The following examples are the previous fragments corrected to read as complete sentences: Incorrect: Ran to the car. Correct: She ran to the car.
What Is A Modifier In A Sentence
Incorrect: The woman at the bus stop. Correct: The woman stood at the bus stop. Incorrect: Behaving badly. Correct: The students were behaving badly. Incorrect: When one of the car’s tires went flat. Correct: When one of the car’s tires went flat, Harold drove onto the highway’s shoulder to change the tire. Run-on sentences join too much information, usually two independent clauses without a conjunction or correct punctuation. INCORRECT EXAMPLE:Ms. Davis was my first grade teacher in 1975 she is still teaching first grade today in the same school. CORRECT EXAMPLE:Ms.
Davis was my first grade teacher in 1975. She is still teaching first grade today in the same school. CORRECT EXAMPLE:Ms. Davis was my first grade teacher in 1975, and she is still teaching first grade today in the same school. CORRECT EXAMPLE:Ms. Davis was my first grade teacher in 1975; she is still teaching first grade today in the same school. INCORRECT EXAMPLE:My mother is the best cook in the world even though she does not believe it I know she will win the recipe contest at the county fair this year. CORRECT EXAMPLE:My mother is the best cook in the world.
Even though she does not believe it, I know she will win the recipe contest at the county fair this year. Misplaced/ Dangling Modifiers 1. Misplaced prepositional phrase: Tom told his sister that taking steroids to enhance a runner’s performance was wrong on Monday. In this example, the phrase “on Monday” should be positioned after “his sister,” otherwise the sentence implies that Tom thinks it’s acceptable to take steroids on any day of the week except Monday. 2. Misplaced adjectival clause: The Stairmaster Tom bought was advertised in Sunday’s paper which is only six-months-old and in excellent condition.
This example implies that the newspaper, not the Stairmaster, is six-months-old and in excellent condition. In order to correct the problem, place the adjectival clause after the verb “bought” and set it off with commas. 3. Dangling participial phrase: Trying out his new running shoes on a woodland trail, a bear crossed Tom’s path. This example implies that the bear was breaking in a pair of new shoes, not Tom. In order to correct the sentence, reword it: As Tom was trying out his new running shoes on a woodland trail, a bear crossed his path. 4. Dangling elliptical adverb clause: When confronted by the bear, his legs grew weak.
This final example makes it sound as if only Tom’s legs were confronted by the bear; therefore, reword the sentence one of two ways: III. Insight This topic is not difficult. You just need to use your common sense in these kind of errors and is really important to be understood. IV. Activity w/ Answers 1. Before giving up, first try to explore your options. Which are many. 2. On my way to work today the man jogging along the road. 3. The man on the corner discovered he had to cross the street at his own risk. Since there was not a crossing guard or a crossing light. 4.
During the night in the middle of August on the hottest evening of the season. __5. Because he had no one to talk to, Chris sat alone and cried. _6. My sister is the worst tennis player in the world because she does not practice or concentrate on the game. _7. When Duane could not find his keys, he searched everywhere he could think he might have lost them he was really embarrassed when he found them in his pocket. _8. She lost her job because she was never on time, and she did not fully understand how to perform her duties. _9. Dancing is my favorite form of recreation swimming is my second. 10. He can never seem to understand directions he always confuses east and west and north and south. ___11. You should not eat pork meat everyday. ___12. Sarah told me not to be depressed on Monday. ___13. The facial cleanser William bought was advertised in TV which was clinically proven to be effective. ___14. The pons located at the brain which is 2. 5 cm. ___15. My cellphone which is 5 months old was sold to a buyer. Answers: 1. I which are many is a sentence fragment. 2. I It is a sentence fragment. 3. I Since. . . light is a subordinate clause, not a sentence. 4.
I It is just a string of prepositional phrases. 5. C 6. C 7. I them; he or them. He 8. C 9. I recreation; swimming or recreation. Swimming or recreation, and swimming 10. I directions; he or directions. He or directions because he 11. C 12. I Place on Monday after the word me 13. I Which was clinically proven to be effective should be placed beside the verb bought 14. I Which is 2. 5 cm should be placed after the word pons 15. C V. References http://ezinearticles. com/? Identifying-and-Correcting-Fragments&id=4544 64 http://www. suite101. com/content/misplaced-modifiers-a121122