This article is describing the use of robotics being perceived as deceptive by users in multiple instances. This article was received by Connection Science on June 1st, 2016 and accepted December 17th, 2016.The article was published online on May 30th, 2017. This article is pertaining to the argument that robots should not be used in a deceptive way towards vulnerable users as well as stating that machine nature should be transparent.
The intended audience for this article are individuals who are researching and developing robotic technologies for users who are in a state of vulnerability. The Primary readers of this article is the Department of Psychology as the article references the use of robotics in therapeutic and rehabilitation sessions. A Secondary audience would be the directed towards Sheffield Robotics as the organization is bound to the Principles of Robotics as stated in the first paragraph of the article. The Tertiary audience would be the elderly as well as patients who are in rehabilitation or therapy as the use of robotics through their session could be either deceptive or helpful. The gatekeepers of this article would be the University of Sheffield as well as the peer reviewers who accepted the formatting, subject and content for the audience.
The beliefs and values of the audience points toward the further integration of the use of robots for therapeutic sessions as it provides the patient to associate certain memories with the object. The audience, mostly therapist along with some robotics enthusiast see the opportunity as a way to further our implementation of treatment with the use of robots. The writers appeal for these beliefs takes a different turn a Dr. Collins describes how the use of the robots are used as a means of deception as the robots are placed in the situation to manipulate the individual into eliciting a specific response. The level of technical knowledge in the article is medium due to some of the abbreviations labeled through the articles. The definitions with the classifications are labeled throughout the page as well to better provide an understanding as to what a specific type of robot is categorized by as well as abbreviations to describe the quality of life and so forth. While reading the article, the reader should be able to comprehend the argument with minimum to no effort while also be encouraged to seek out other information pertaining to the article.
The Primary and only author of this article is Emily C. Collins, a Research Associate at the University of Liverpool located in the United Kingdom. Dr. Collins has acquired her PhD is the Computer science field, specializing in robotics and AI. She has also published over 30 articles and is currently researching the challenges of the RAIN project and the implementation of AI technologies to solve the issue caused by the nuclear industry.
The font on the article is Calibri and the size of the text is set to 12pt. except for the heading as well as the keywords, article history, and abstract information which is bold and in a blue color. The title is offset to the left with the same blue color and a slightly bigger font compared to the rest of the article. The header of the page contains the volume and URL of the article and the left side has a graphic of the Taylor and Francis group logo. Dr. Collins does not state her education in the title field. She is using the APA citation style in line with the discipline. The paper is organized by asking two questions as follows:
- [Unnumbered Title]:Abstract
- Introduction (Collins, 2019, p. 223)
- Question 1 (Collins, 2019, p. 223)
- Question 2 (Collins, 2019, p. 223)
- Robots should not be designed in a deceptive way to exploit vulnerable users (Collins, 2019, p. 224)
- Figure 2 (Collins, 2019, p. 225)
- Machine nature should be Transparent (Collins, 2019, p. 227)
- Summary (Collins, 2019, p. 227)
- [Unnumbered Title] Notes (Collins, 2019, p. 228)
- Note 1 (Collins, 2019, p. 228)
- Note 2 (Collins, 2019, p. 228)
- [Unnumbered Title] Disclosure statement (Collins, 2019, p. 228)
- [Unnumbered Title] Funding (Collins, 2019, p. 228)
- [Unnumbered Title] References (Collins, 2019, p. 228-229)
The word choice is not too difficult for the standard reader, but the use of jargon throughout the passage is scattered throughout the article. (Collins, 2019, p.224)An example from the article would be when talking about the QoL, it is referring to the quality of life for a user. (Collins, 2019, p.225) Another example would be when Dr. Collins is describing the type of therapy robots are involved in as AAT, animal-assisted therapy. Dr. Collins uses sophisticated word choices throughout the article such as the use of the word neurodegenerative (Collins, 2019, p.226) and breadth (Collins, 2019, p.227). the other word choices are simple enough and provide a good transition from one long word to multiple short words.
The average sentences contained in each paragraph varies between seven to eight (7-8) per paragraph excluding the references page and heading number three which only contains four sentences. Most of the sentences are relatively long for some of the paragraphs with some sentences stretching 5 lines or more. The paragraphs again are varied through the article with the typical word count to be between three hundred (300) on the high end and one hundred and thirty (130) on the low end. Dr. Collins uses the images in the article (Collins, 2019, p.224) to represent and distinguish the differences between a social robot and companion robot.
The use of another graphic (Collins, 2019, p.225) gives an example of another social robot as well as an example in which a social robot is being used. The graphics are placed to where they are not hindering the reading of the article, but instead provide a visual for the content beforehand. (Collins, 2019, p.225) Dr. Collins also states the use of the animal robots to aid in the use of animal-assisted therapy to help with either group therapy or in a one-on-one manner.
- Collins, E. C. (2017). Vulnerable users: deceptive robotics. Connection
- Science, 29(3), 223229. org.libproxy.uhcl.edu/10.1080/09540091.2016.1274959
- Collins, E. C. (2018, July 25). Emily C. Collins (@dreccollins). Retrieved from
- Collins, Emily C. Dr Emily Collins BA, MSc, PhD. Emily Collins
- University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, 2019,