Climate change or Environmental change in Fiji is causing an enormous increment in the incidence and intensity of extreme rainfall. the following floodwaters are essentially overwhelming the drainage (Gyani Nand, Minister for Agriculture, Government of Fiji, Fiji Daily Post, page 5: September 5, 2006).system in Fiji’s low-lying farming regions, and when the rivers and creeks can’t deplete excess water, crops are destroyed, healthy local food become scars and rare in supply, the local economy is threatened. Some creeks are covered with weeds due to that the water flow systems are blocked therefore the Fijis department of land and water resource management has built new drainage system and cleared up creeks together with the pacific adaption to climate change (2009). Pacific adaption to climate change (PACC) are working with the communities in Nausori and Navua to contribute to a sustainable change infrastructure but to complement this drainage work the department of land and water resource management is working with the agricultural research station at Koronivia in Nausori to develop crop varieties that are salt water and tolerant and others that are resistant to the increase in the common water logging conditions. Production of food is a cause of vital for all humans but for Fijians its also plays an important economic role. With 50% of local employment and 43% of export earnings comes from agricultural sector. Its crucial that Fiji be able to produce for both overseas and local market but sadly under the current climate pressures this is not always possible for that the staple eating routine of the Fijian individuals is undermined. However this essay will emphasize on how the information and communication technologies help farmers better adopt to climate change, the improvement and effective communication for sustainable rural growth and agricultural development and the factors affecting the delivery of extension service to farming communities. Climate change will be a major problem to achieve a sustainable development in small islands. In attempting to mainstream adaptation strategies, small islands will be confronted by many challenges including insufficient resources, equity considerations, prioritization of adaptation measures and uncertainties over climate change projections and adaptation strategies.
To begin with, How Information and communication technology help farmers better adapt to climate change, extension officers should collect, analyze and deliver information which allows farmers to understand variation that occur in seasonal climate condition. Farmers should also adjust their management practices to cope with them. Information should guide farmers to know whether to plant, when to plant, specifically which crop varieties to plant. Information should also consist of how much water and agrochemicals to use. This will increase agricultural productivity food and income security, and allows for more sustainable farming. ICT plays a major role in farmers life, now a days mobile phones, a video/Slide shows and radio/Televisions all will relate at climate change. Increasing availability of this technology that have to potential to reduce greenhouse gases and increase productive agricultural technologies. As sated (josh Woodard, 2013) conservation agriculture and agroforestry hinder due to climate change therefore his challengers are not awarded by all farmers. Thus tis challengers may be risky and could led to ruin the farmers life. In this way ICT comes in play, it makes easer to share relevant information such as weather forecaster and when to do what. Messages now days are passed through message (SMS) and voice via mobile. Phones are growing at a rapid rate throughout the world and farmers now are having access to agronomy number of agricultural information service. Some farmers are able to access directly while others relay on a trusted communication intermediary. Thus, it also provides donor subsidies, or by selling advertising and other service such as user survey. Mobiles phones channel has been growing number of agricultural organization. Farmers and extension officers are using low cost video equipment to create and share stories of farmers who have made change to more subsistence practices with their community members.
Never the less, the mobile phones contain radio, interactive radio programs are being developed that are completely transforming rural radio from a one-way dissemination of information to a two want exchange of sharing and learning technologies are making change in agricultural practices over control groups that doesnt have access to these service is telling. Radio stations call out to farmers can increase adoption rates. ICT cannot overcome these climate change challengers on its own, but it may facilitate a faster transition to environmentally friendlier forms of agriculture in the part of the world that needs those most. Video/ slide shows_ the extension officers goes to different villages and communities to show some of the agricultural films to deliver some important information to farmers who are unable to understand due to deafness or another disabilities.
However, ICTs are used in agricultural extensions by farmers even across the regions. While some counties are showing considerable growth in awareness to improve the relevance, effectiveness and efficiency of the research out comes developing countries like Fiji need to connect agricultural research agencies and their staffs. To have a sustainable social economic impact, information and communication technology on a significant stage is necessary. Digital content for developing countries and reliable information service are improving the development of this ICT capacity will be helpful in designing of new knowledge. Informations are critical for poor resource, small holder farmers and producers. Good leaders/extension workers are needed in bridging expert farmers communication and exchanging gaps. There are many opportunities for improved in extension advisory service and for farmer to farmer learning. In Fiji development of new standards is a must for the organization.
In addition, an important input for agriculture production is Weather information. Weather patterns can be significantly different within Short term in small geographical area like Fiji. Information is essential to be delivered in timely manner to different agro-climatic zones by Cost effective models. Malis National Meteorological Service launched a pilot project in 1982 to provide climatic metrological information to farmers, resulting in higher yields in field crops, where farmers earned 80% more income (Anonymous, 2007)this decisions were made to save farmers time and resources. For example, to save time and wages, farmers can postpone irrigation schedule, or postpone spraying pesticides or herbicides on their crop and save both the cost of washed off chemicals with forecasting knowledge that makes one aware that rain is expected ICT can disseminate extreme weather events and warning or alert for disasters., notes citrus crop is vulnerable to premature fruit drop disease, that is when temperature is low. Weather cloudy and leaves wet; specific weather fore- 156 Fijian Studies Vol 15, No. 2 casts. To more than 50% loss of citrus yield proper timed of fungicide application should be done. Low-lying land is prone to frequent flooding due to unpleasant weather conditions its important for farmers to manage their crops during flood warnings because food security are the major concern in Fiji
Some major constrains in adaptation of ICT in agriculture
ICT has too much cost and infrastructure for the developing countries
there are less understanding and awareness of ICT tools that should be used by small scale farmers and at community levels.
Less marketing of ICT to farmers in Fiji and cost of ICT tools are high.
Lack of Internet connectivity in the rural areas, and
Less training of farmers about recent advances of aspects of agriculture such as correct practices irrigation and fertilizer management practice, weather information and efficient utilization of different tools of ICT.
Moving on, only seven organizations were aware of the existing ICT tools available for the agricultural sector in Fiji, out of the 17 companies approached by the survey team, Out of 13 ICT tools identified by the team, farmers were not aware of the impact most of these tools could have in the farming sector. This can be changed if workshops and training on the use of these applications are provided to farmers. All stakeholders should have a sustained dissemination of knowledge on the right usage of the apps. Because of shoestring budgets, low ICT competencies, user preference, and digital divide, amongst many Farmers, they still prefer traditional communication tools and approaches. ICT tools can be used to revolutionize the agricultural and fisheries sectors, through proper workshops and marketing, If the platforms and apps mentioned earlier are constantly updated and reviewed, it will have a positive impact on the agricultural sector and eventually people will be attracted to adopt more ICTs based on local success stories then there are some potential platforms and apps that can be of great benefit to farmers. These should pave the way for many more in the future as awareness and user preference improve. For increasing awareness and promoting there is need for greater use of ICTs, the uptake of proven small-scale irrigation and mechanization technologies. Working with farmers and farmer groups both directly and through the Private sector partners mainly helps in building their understanding and knowledge of commercial Agriculture. Modernize rural advisory services, Support and train private and public sector change agents to deliver extension services, disseminate best agribusiness management practices, scale up appropriate technology including irrigation systems, and provide access to credit, to Support scaling-up of proven agricultural technologies.
To sum up it could be said that, in the pacific island countries like Fiji have main concerns which are based on the food security due to the effect of climate change the paucity, the variable topography, different agro climatic conditions of the information technology in agriculture may contribute to Fijis low agricultural and livestock production. Information and communication technology has greater potential in enhancing production and productivity of the crops, livestock, fisheries, flowers and etc. the ICT based tools such as decision support system, modeling software , e/m- consulting and e/m learning , management information and networking tools (radios, televisions, mobile phones and wireless networks). ICT are essential for the farmers to increase their productivity. ICT has the potential to get feedbacks faster and accurately about the information, programs and technology applied. Builds a information gap between the researches- extension professionals- farmer/ entrepreneurs