In the past decades international trade has made it possible for the

In the past decades, international trade has made it possible for the invention of containers all-round the globe for the easy facilitation of transferring goods and services from one place to the other. The use of these containers brought about the container terminal. Container terminals are facilities located either inside or outside the port premises where containers are transferred to, for onward transportation or delivery. This study talks about off-dock terminals which are terminals situated outside the port premises. The clear and increased growth of containers in ports, improved technology, as well as improved infrastructure makes it beneficial to determine the efficiencies of these terminals.

This paper uses the Data Envelopment Analysis to determine and analyze the efficiency changes using a panel data from 2015-2018.

DEA makes use of techniques such as mathematical programming which handles a greater number of variables and relations (constraints), thus a flexibility in the requirements often encountered when there’s a limitation in choosing only but a few inputs and outputs (WILLIAM W.

COOPER, 1999). DEA which has been employed by all and sundry for the evaluation of container ports and terminals performance (Shiu-Wan Hung, 2009), which is a technique used in the comparison of several units. These variables reflect transparency as much as possible. The output variables used in the assessment of the efficiency of these terminals is the Annual Throughput, which usually is the primary basis on which container ports are compared. The input variables on which this study is based are on labor, fork lifts, reach stackers, trucks, and the terminal storage area.

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These variables were chosen based on their importance to terminal operations. The paper adopted both inputs and output variable in using the DEA model.

From the analysis of this research, terminals that were found to have the highest data samples actually has lower efficiency as when compared to terminals with lower sample data. It was realized that APMT had a constant increase in efficiency with an average score of 100%, TBT maintaining a firm stability in efficiency has an average score of 99%. ACS obtained an average efficiency score of 98% whilst TCT obtained an average of 94%. From analysis and results shown, TCT was found to be less efficient even though they had highest of sample data whilst APMT obtained the highest efficiency. From sample data Tema Bonded terminal had the smallest throughput as well as the smaller terminal size. Arica Coastal Services followed with a higher throughput but a higher storage area. A. P. Moller terminal followed with a much higher throughput but with a lesser storage area. Tema Container terminal recorded the highest of both throughput and storage space. a summery statistic for sample data for the off-dock container terminals.

The mean for all throughput was taken, standard deviation, minimum and the maximum of the sample data. All figures were in two decimal places except for efficiency scores which may pose a problem.

The research recommends that for an increase in efficiency, there should be promotion and terminal development, adequate infrastructure, handling equipments that can sufficiently help in attaining efficiency. Operators must make sure that equipments available go hand in hand with the number of throughput coming in and also personal available. In addition, the terminals should choose their suitable way of development and maintain their growth. These terminals should identify areas they fall short of and how well they can manage these pullbacks and also take measures as to how well they can maintain their growth.

Container terminals should try their best to improve efficiency by more effectively improving their management skills, making practical use of capital and allocating both human and natural resources.

KEYWORDS: Efficiency, Off-dock Container Terminals, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), Windows Analysis.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGES

Declaration: ……………………………………

Dedication: ……………………………………

Acknowledgement: ………………………………

Abstract: …………………………………………

Table of Contents: ……………………………..

List of Tables: ………………………………

List of Figures: ………………………………

List of Abbreviations: ……………………………

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

1.0. Introduction: ……………………………

1.1. Problem Statement: ………………………

1.2. Research Objectives: …………………

1.3. Specific Objectives: ……………………

1.4. Research Questions: ……………………

1.5. Significance of Study: ……………………

1.6. Limitation of study: ……………………

1.7. Organization of Study: …………………

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0. Introduction: ……………………

2.1. Port Evolutionary Changes: …………………

2.2. Containerization: ……………………

2.3. Container Terminal: ………………………

2.4. Container Terminal Operations: ………………………

2.5. Efficiency Measurement of Container Terminals: ……….

2.5.1. Types of Efficiency………………………

2.6. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA): …………………………….

2.6.1. Advantages and Disadvantages of DEA ………………………

2.7. Conclusion: ……………………………

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY

3.0. Introduction: …………………………………………………………….

3.1. Study Area: ………………….

3.2. Data Collection: …………………………..

3.2.1. Primary Source …………………….

3.2.2. Secondary Source …………………….

3.3. Description of Variables ………………………….

3.4. Data Envelopment Analysis ………………………….

.

CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

4.0. Data and Analysis: ……………………………………

Chapter V: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0. Conclusion: ……………………………

5.1. Recommendation: …..…………

BIBLIOGRAPHY

References: ……………………………………………………………………….

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.0 Efficiency table …………………………..

Table 2.0 Advantages and Disadvantages of DEA ……………

Table 3.0 Container throughput ……………………..

Table 4.0 Input and Output variable …………………….

Table 5.0 Summery Statistics for Off-dock terminal …………..

Table 6.0 Windows Analysis Results ………………..

Table 7.0 Terminal Efficiency Ranking ……………….

Table 8.0 Average by term ……………………..

Table 9.0 Average terminal Efficiency …………………..

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Container throughput ……………………….

Figure 2. Terminal Efficiency variation by term …………….

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

DEA DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

DMU DECISION MAKING UNIT

TEUs TWENTY-FOOT EQUIVALENT UNIT

FEUs FORTY-FOOT EQUIVALENT UNIT

ONDCT ON-DOCK CONTAINER TERMINALS

OFDCT OFF-DOCK CONTAINER TERMINALS

UNCTAD UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT

VRS VARIABLE RETURN TO SCALE

CRS CONSTANT RETURN TO SCALE

TBT TEMA BONDED TERMINAL

TCT TEMA CONTAINER TERMINAL

APMT A. P. MOLLER TERMINAL

ACS AFRICA COASTAL SERVICE

FDH FREE DISPOSABLE HULL

CHAPTER ONE

1.0. INTRODUCTION

Ports play an important role in a nation’s economic growth. In recent years, countries find themselves putting measures in place to ensure the growth of their ports to international standards since this will have a huge impact on the economies of these countries. According to (UNTAD, 2017), about 80% of global trade is made by sea and about 70% is value carried onboard vessels and transported to seaports worldwide making it impossible to underemphasize the importance of maritime transportation of trade and development. Changes in world trade and the shipping environment have created an ever-increasing competition among ports all over the world to serve as the hubs to and from their respective regional areas and to have the due advantages as the bigger and better ports.

The port of Tema is the largest port in Ghana. Situated on the eastern coast of the country, it stretches over a 3.9 million square meters of land area. The port receives an average of over 1650 vessel call per year. These comprise container vessels, general cargo vessels, tankers, Ro-Ro and cruise vessels amongst many others. 85% of Ghana’s trade is done through the ports with shipping routes and vessel calls to and from all continents through both direct and transshipment service. Set within the industrial city of Tema and 30km from the capital of Ghana, the port environs serve as a logistic point for activities of inland clearance depot(ICD), warehouses, transport and haulage companies, freight forwarders, factories and related service centers (GPHA, 2016).

One reason for the advancement of the port is the container terminal. These terminals enable the movement of more goods into the country and also a suitable transit point for neighboring cities. The container as an essential part of the unit-load concept has achieved undoubted importance in international sea freight transportation.

Off-dock container terminals are container terminals situated outside the port premises. Most ports around the world have encountered various stages of evolution of cargo packaging from the times of general cargo transported in sacks and on pallets to the modern method of containerization through standardization and mass-application of the shipping container in global transportation services. With the development of international trade, container terminals play a more and more important role within the global supply chains in general and the worldwide sea cargo transportation system in particular (Bingliang Song, 2011). With growing international sea traffic and changing technology in the maritime transport industry (containerization, integrated logistics services, etc.), seaports are coping with mounting pressures to upgrade and provide cutting-edge technology (Dang, 2012).Due to various advancements, these terminals one way or the other might have gotten their works cut out or improved. This study therefore seeks to assess the productivity of these off-dock container terminals.

1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

International trade has resulted in the increase of container ports and terminals which in turn increased container volumes. According to (V.Hall), containerization over the past 50 years has enabled and dwelled on the clear growth in the complex and concentrated global trade flow. In past years, there’s being an immense increase of containers in Ports, increase of terminals, improved technology, as well as improved infrastructure. Reviewing most papers and research works in this part of the world, Tema Ghana, there hasn’t being any research done on efficiency assessment of these off-dock terminals to the best knowledge of the author, and for this it is of utmost importance to evaluate the internal framework of these terminals and also recommend effective methods of sustainability in development.

1.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The main objective of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of off-dock container terminals at the port of Tema.

1.3 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

? To identify the criteria used in determining container terminal efficiency

? Determining the relative levels of efficiency

? To suggest measures to improve container terminal efficiency

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

? What is the criteria used to determine container terminal efficiency?

? What are the relative levels of efficiency?

? What measures can be put in place to improve the efficiency of these terminals?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Upon conclusion of this research, to the terminal operator, this paper should tell the performance of these terminals, day to day activities, and as to whether or not to improve on what operations these terminals are into and also to employ new strategies. To the users of these terminals, this paper should help in the selection of a suitable terminal for their operations taking into consideration the cost, dual-time, benefits and their individual taste and preferences. Moreover, this research is also undertaken with the goal of showing the importance of DEA as an efficiency tool, whose advantages are both due to its strong proof of concept and its broad application. Finally, a successful completion of this study will also lay a foundation for readers with less knowledge on how DEA module can be employed in which they can obtain inspiration to assess problems of greater complexity and importance.

1.6. LIMITATION OF STUDY

Social Research, a valuable tool used to unveil vital information in the human setting cannot be carried out successfully without limitations. The following are some limitations encountered during the research period. The unwillingness of some terminals to disclose vital information in order to enable the researcher analyze them. Financial Problems: This was a major challenge that slowed down the research. Self-financing in terms of transportation and purchasing of other relevant materials also slowed the progress of the study.

1.7. ORGANISATION OF STUDY

The research would be organized in the following order;

? CHAPTER ONE

?

This chapter would present the background to the study, problem statement, research objectives, research questions, scope of the study, limitation of the study, and organization of the study.

?

? CHAPTER TWO

?

This chapter would review previous literatures relevant to this research.

?

? CHAPTER THREE

?

This would contain the methodology which comprises of the target population and sample size, sources of data collection, models used in data analysis and data collection.

?

? CHAPTER FOUR

?

Presentation of data would be done here. Data collected would be analyzed and interpretations would be made using tables and figures.

?

? CHAPTER FIVE

?

This chapter would present the summary of findings with conclusion and recommendations

?

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In the past decades international trade has made it possible for the
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