A therapeutic diet is a meal plan that regulates a certain food or nutrient consumption. Usually it allows you to remove or limit certain types of foods, consume more of certain types of foods, adjust the consistency of your foods or modify your eating habit. Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a category of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated levels of blood sugar over a long period of time. It is when your pancreas doesn’t contain enough insulin in your blood to control the amount of glucose, or sugar.
Insulin is a hormone essential for the use of blood sugar in the body. There are two types of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes (T1D), also called juvenile diabetes, is a type of diabetes in which the pancreas produces very little or no insulin. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), previously referred to as adult-onset diabetes, is a type of diabetes characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance and relative insulin shortages.
Common symptoms include elevated fatigue, frequent urination and sudden loss of weight. Hypertension (HTN or HT), also defined as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term health condition that consistently elevates blood pressure in the arteries. Hypertension is usually a condition of silence. Most individuals will not experience symptoms at all. The disease can take years or even decades to reach levels extreme enough for signs to become evident.
In this case, Mr. M is diagnosed diabetes mellitus with hypertension. He needs a therapeutic diet in order to have a healthy lifestyle.
He needs to take fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy products such as tomatoes, carrots, broccoli, sweet potatoes, milk, yogurt and cheese for simple carbohydrates. Other than that, fibre-rich foods are important to reduce the risk of heart disease and help to control blood sugar. Examples of food are nuts such as kidney beans, almonds, sunflower seeds, peas and lentils which are good sources of magnesium, potassium and protein. In addition, he needs to eat fish at least twice a week. This is because fish such as cod, tuna and halibut have less total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol than meat and poultry whereas fish such as salmon, mackerel, tuna and sardines are rich in omega-3 fatty acids which can promote heart health by lowering blood fats called triglycerides. Next, he needs to consume “good” fats which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats such as avocados, almonds, pecans, walnuts, olives, canola oil, olive oil and peanut oil can help to lower down cholesterol levels. Fat helps our body to absorb essential vitamins and helps our body’s immune system. However, too much fat can increase risk of heart disease, diabetes and obesity. Last but not least, drinking too much alcohol can also increase blood pressure. It is recommend that men drink two to fewer drinks a day and women drink one or less drink a day.
As a conclusion, medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a healthy-eating plan for diabetic patient that is rich in nutrients and low in fat and calories. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) is suggested by American Heart Association to reduce sodium in diet and consume foods that are rich in nutrients such as potassium, calcium and magnesium that helps to lower blood pressure. Mr. M needs to follow the therapeutic diet that is listed above in order to have a healthy lifestyle.